Chapter 7 – Chemistry Test Questions

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mixture
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combination of two or more pure substances, both retain identity
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homogeneous mixture
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synonym for solution has same composition throughout
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heterogeneous mixture
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mixture that does not have same composition throughout
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colloid
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homogeneous mixture that contains larger particles
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will a colloid settle
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no
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suspension
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heterogeneous mixture with larger particles
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will a suspension settle
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yes
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solvent
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liquid in which anouther substanc eis dissolved
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solute
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substance dissolved in a liquid
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solvation
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clustering of solvent molecules around a dissolved solutes molecules or ions
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example of when solvation would happen
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when salt is dissolved in water
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hygroscopic
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having the ability to ull water molecules from the surrounding atmosphere
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what do we call it when water is the solvent
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hydration
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saturated solution
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solution containing the maximum amoung of solute that will dissolve
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solubility
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maximum amount of a substance that will dissolce in a given amountof solvent at a particular temperature
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miscible
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mutally soluble in all proportions
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immiscible
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opposite of miscible (insolubility)
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which is clear, a solution or a colloid
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a solution
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what is the particle size in a solution
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less that 2.0 nm
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what is the particle size in a colloid?
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between 2.0 and 500 nm
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what is the particle size in a suspension
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more than 500 nm
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air,seawater and gas are all examples of
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solutions
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butter, milk and fog are examples of
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colloid
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blood and paint are examples of
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suspension
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characteristics of a solution
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transparent, not filterable, does not seperate
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could a solution be colored
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yes
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is a solution filterable
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no
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characteristic of colloids
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murky or opaque, does not seperate
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is a colloid filterable
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no
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characteristics of a suspension
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murky or opaque, seperates on standing
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is a suspension filterable
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yes
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are gases suspensions, solutions or colloids?
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solutions
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moving from a solution to a solid solute is called
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crystallization
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moving from a solid solute to a solution is called
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dissolution
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does heat generally increase or decrease solubility
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increase
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how would you make a supersaturated solution
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saturate the solution at a higher temperature, then let the solution cool undisturbed
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after a solution has been supersaturated and cooled, what would a disturbance do to the solution
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cause it to crystallize
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is supersaturation a stable state?
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no
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the solution process needs similar or compatible
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intermolecular forces
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what does “like dissolves like” mean
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non-polar substances will dissolve in non-polar solutions and polar substances will dissolce in polar substances
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heat change when dissolving can be
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positive or negative
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is dissolving a static process
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no, there is a lot of back and forth
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rate of dissolving is dependant on
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surface area (rock candy vs powdered sugar.
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what two factors can increase the rate of dissolving
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heat and stirring
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how do heat and stirring speed up rate of dissolving
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by increasing the rate at which molecules collide
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stirring also increases rate by
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moving solvaed molecules further from the pure solvent
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molarity
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moles of solution over liters solution
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weight/volume percent
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mass of solute/volume of solution
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what are the units for weight/volume percent
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grams of solute/100 mL solution
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how would you write weight volume as a conversion factor
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parts per one hundred (grams over 100 mL)
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dilution formula
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m1v1=m2v2
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in a dilution formula, what do the variables stand for?
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m1=concentration of concetrated, v1=volume of concentrated, m2=concentration of diluted, v2= concentration of diluted
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what units do you need to use when using the dilution equation?
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it doesn’t matter as long as they are the same on both sides
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Is the volume used in the dilution problem total volume or added volume?
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total volume
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what must be used as the common unit when doing stoichiometry equations?
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moles
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electrolytes
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produces ions when dissolved in water adn therefore conducts electricity.
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what has to happen for a dissolved compound to conduct electricity?
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the compound must dissociate into ions
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strong electrolytes
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dissociates completely in water
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weak electrolytes
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partially dissociates in water
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nonelectrolytes
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do not dissociate in water
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colligative particles depend only on
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the number of particles, not their chemical identity
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colligative properties (vapor pressure)
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lowers
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colligative properties (boiling point)
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elevation
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colligative properties (freezing point)
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depression
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colligative properties (osmosis)
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osmosis
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how do colligative properties lower vapor pressure?
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the solute makes the liquid less concentrated, therefore fewer particles will be in the vapor phase
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how do colligative properties elevate boiling points?
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if the vapor pressure is lower at a particular tamperature, to get the vapor pressure to atmospheric pressure, the temperature must be raised.
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The boiling point of 1 kg of water is increased by how many degrees celcius for each mole of particles?
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0.51 degrees celcius
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How do colligative properties depress the freezing point?
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if there are contaminants in the liquid (solvent) it is harder for the liquid molecules to form a crysal lattice.
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the temperature water freezes at is lowered by how many degrees for each mol of particles per 1 kg of water?
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1.86 degrees
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is osmosis only (blank) can pass through membrane
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solvent
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osmotic pressure
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the pressure that must be applied to the contaminated solution to half the flow of solvent into that chamber
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osmolarity is the sum of
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the molarities for all dissolved particles in a solution
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osmotic pressure equation
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osmotic pressure =nMRT
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what number is used for the constant (R) in the equation for osmotic pressure
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62.4 L torr/k mol
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isotonic solution
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0.30 osmol. Water will not flow in or out of cell, cell stays normal size
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hypotonic solution
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less than 0.30 osmol. water flows into the cell, the cell bursts
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hypertonic solution
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greater than 0.30 osmol. water flows out of the cell, cell creanates
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how does dialysis differ from osmosis
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small particles as well as solvent can diffuse through the semipermeable membrane

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