Chapter 4, Nature, Nurture, and Human Diversity

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The study of the relative power and limits of genetic and environmental influences on behavior and personality traits is known as A) Molecular genetics B) Evolutionary psychology C) Behavior Genetics D) Gender typing
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C) Behavior Genetics
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A behavior geneticist would be most interested in studying hereditary influences on A) skin color b) sexual anatomy C) physical attactiveness D) Personality traits.
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D) personality Traits
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The biochemical units of heredity that make up the chromosomes are called A) genes B) Schemas C) Epigenetic molecules D) Neurotransmitters
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A) Genes
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The genome is the complete A) collection of sexual characteristics regulated by the X and Y Chromosomes B) Range of traits that contribute to reproductive success C) set of genetic material in an organism’s chromosomes D) Set of interactions between genes and environments
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C) Set of genetic material in an organism’s chromosomes
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Compared with identical twins, fraternal twins are _________ similar in neuroticism and ________ similar in risk of divorcing. A) More; less B) less; more C) More; More D) less; less
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D) less; less
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Environmental influences on personality traits are most clearly highlighted by comparing A) identical twins raised together with fraternal twins raised apart B) identical twins raised together with fraternal twins raised together C) Identical twins raised apart with fraternal twins raised together D) Identical twins raised together with identical twins raised apart
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D) identical twins raised together with identical twins raised apart.
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We are likely to _______ the personality similarities among children in the same family, and we are likely to _______ the personality similarities between parents and their children. A) overestimate; understimate B) underestimate; overestimate C) underestimate; underestimate D) overestimate; overestimate
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D) Overestimate; overestimate
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The labels \”easy,\” difficult,\” and \”slow-to-warm-up\” are used to refer to differences in infants’ A) gender schema B) epigenetics C) temperament D) gender typing
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C) temperament
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A child’s temperament is likely to be A) difficult to observe B) stable over time C) a product of parenting style D) a product of his or her gender schema
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B) stable over time
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Difficult babies with an intense and highly reactive temperament tend to be A) intelligent and imaginative B) irritable and unpredictable C) fearless and assertive D) extraverted and cheerful
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B) Irritable and unpredictable
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People have always responded so positively to Alyssa’s good looks that she has developed a socially confident and outgoing personality. This best illustrates A) The impact of temperament on gender identity B) that gender schemas and social roles are complementary C) the interaction of nature and nurture D) The reciprocal influence of norms and roles
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C) The interaction of nature and nurture
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Evolutionary psychologists are most likely to emphaisze that human adaptiveness to a variety of different enviornments has contributed to human A) gender typing B) genetic mutations C) gender schemas D) reproductive success.
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D) Reproductive success
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If a genetically beautiful person contributes to survival, that trait will likely be passed on to subsequent generations. This best illustrates A) gender typing B) Natural Selection C) Behavior genetics D) Collectivism
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B) natural selection
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Compared with women, men are more likely to A) initiate sexual activity B) think about sex C) make sacrifices to gain sex D) behave in all of these ways.
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D) Behave in all of these ways.
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Compared with women, men are ______ likely to feel comfortable about having casual sex with different partners and _______ likely to cite affection as a reason for their first sexual intercourse. A) less; more B) more; less C) less; less D) more; more
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B) more; less
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Critics of evolutionary psychology are most likely to suggest that it underestimates the A) impact of genetic predispositions on human sexual behavior B) impact of cultural expectations on human sexual behavior C) Variety of traits that contribute to reproductively successfully behaviors D) Extent to which certain gender differences in sexual behavior are common to all cultures
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B) impact of cultural expectations on human sexual behavior
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Compared with environmentally impoverished rats, those rats housed in enriched environments experienced a dramatic increase in the number of their A) genomes B) schemas C) synapses D) sex hormones
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C) Synapses
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Lacking any exposure to the language before adolescence, a person will never master any language due to the ________ of unemployed neural connections. A) Natural selection B) mutation C) pruning D) Temperament
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C) Pruning
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For children from impoverished environments, stimulating educational experiences during early childhood are most likely to A) facilitate the development of collectivism B) decrease their emotional attachment to their own parents C) have no discernable effect on subsequent academic performance D) prevent the degeneration of activated connections between neurons
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D) Prevent the degeneration of activated connections between neurons
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Children raised in the same family are not especially likely to have similar personalities. This most clearly implies that we should be cautious about attributing personality to A) gender schemas B) parental influences C) temperament D) peer influences
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B) Parental influences
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An awareness that children’s temperaments influence parents’ child-rearing practices should inhibit our tendency to A) emphasize the interaction of nature and nurture B) assess the stability of personality traits C) blame parents for our own dysfunctional characteristics D) identify cultural differences in child-rearing practices
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C) Blame parents for our own dysfunctional characteristics
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Although Adam didn’t care for the taste of fried green tomatoes, he began eating them when he saw that his classmates were doing so. His behavior best illustrates the importance of A) the male answer syndrome B) an epigenetic mark C) a pruning process D) peer influence
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D) Peer influence
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In comparison to parental influence, peer influence is A) more likely to affect a child’s educational success B) less likely to affect whether a teen smokes C) more likley to affect a child’s language accent D) less likely to influence whether a preschooler will reject a certain food.
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C) more likely to affect a child’s language accent.
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Norms are best described as A) the biochemical units of heredity B) a person’s characteristic emotional reactivity. C) rules for socially acceptable behavior D) a universally shared moral grammar.
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C) rules for socially acceptable behavior
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A collectivist culture is especially likely to emphasize the importance of A) social harmony B) personal privacy C) innovation and creativity D) racial diversity
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A) social harmony
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Compared with people in individualist cultures, those in collectivist cultures are A) less likely to display signs of humility and more likely to defer to other’s wishes B) more likely to display signs of humility and less likely to defer to others’ wishes C) less likely to display signs of humility and less likely to defer to others’ wishes D) more likely to display signs of humility and more likely to defer to others’ wishes.
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D) More likely to display signs of humility and more likely to defer to others’ wishes
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Cross-Cultural research on human development indicates that A) person-to-person differences within cultural groups are larger than differences between groups B) differences among cultural groups largely reflect genetic differences among racial groups C) gender differences in behavior result from differences in biology rather than from differences in life experience D) developmental processes differ greatly among individuals raised in different cultures.
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A) Person-to-person differences within cultural groups are larger than differences between groups.
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When teased by his older sister, 9-year-old Waldo does not cry because he has learned that boys are not supposed to cry. Waldo’s behavior best illustrates the importance of A) temperament B) gender roles C) testosterone D) natural selection
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B) Gender roles
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The social roles assigned to women and men are A) virtually the same in all cultures B) Have been virtually the same in all historical periods C) Differ widely across cultures D) Differ widely across historical time periods but not across cultures.
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C) differ widely across cultures.
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A boy who consistently exhibits traditionally masculine interests and behavior patterns demonstrates A) neuroticism B) collectisim C) heritability D) gender typing
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D) Gender typing.

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