Chapter 3 APHG

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Stage 1 of the migration transition consists of:
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-Hunting/gathering -Moving daily
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Stage 2 of the migration transition consists of:
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-Moving from rural areas to urban areas -High international migration
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Stage 3 of the migration transition consists of:
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-Moving to cities and suburbs -High international immigration
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What are Ravenstein’s 2 laws for distance in relation of migrants?
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1. Most migrants relocate a short distance and remain within the same country 2. Long distance migrants to other countries head for major centers of economic activity
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What types of push factors are usually responsible for voluntary migration?
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They have chosen to move because of economic improvement
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What type of push factors are usually responsible for forced migration?
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Political/environmental factors
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5 Summary Statements regarding global migration patterns
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-People move from LDCs to MDCs -US and Europe have a lot of immigrants -9% of the world are international immigrants -Guest workers moving from Southwest Asia for work -US had more foreign born residents
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The world’s third most populous country (US) is inhabited overwhelmingly by who?
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Direct descendants from immigrants
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In what stage of the demographic transition are most countries that send out immigrants
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Stage 2: LCDs mostly in Asia, Latin America, and Africa
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What are the 3 countries that sent out the most immigrants from Asia in recent years
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China, Philippines, India
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What caused immigration from Latin America to the US increase?
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1984 Immigration and Control Act: issued visas to immigrants already living in the US who didn’t already have them
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Although the reasons people leave their countries to immigrate to the US have not changed over time, what has changed here in the US?
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US is no longer sparsely settled
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What is the most famous example of large-scale interregional migration in the US?
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The opening of the American West
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What is population center?
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Average location of everyone in the country
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What was the first intervening obstacle which hindered American settlement of the interior of the continent? Why?
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Appalachian Mts: Steep slopes, thick forests, very few gaps
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What developments in transportation eventually encouraged settlement to the Mississippi?
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Building of Canals
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Why was settlement of the Great Plains slow to come with settlers passing it by for California and the west coast?
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Emigration from Europe to the East Coast offset most of the emigration from the East Coast to the US West
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How did the railroads encourage settlement of the American interior?
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Federal gov’t sold land portions to farmers
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Push factor
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A factor, such as unemployment, wide scale poverty in Kenya, or the lack of freedom of speech, that induces people to want to leave their country and move to another one (like the US), only hypothetically lol.
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Migration
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Form of relocation diffusion involving permanent move to a new location.
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Emigration
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migration from a place (especially migration from your native country in order to settle in another)
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Immigration
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migration into a place (especially migration to a country of which you are not a native in order to settle there)
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Refugees
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People who are forced to migrate from their home country and cannot return for fear of persecution because of their race, religion, nationality, membership in a social group, or political opinion.
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Net migration
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The difference between the number of immigrants and the number of emigrants
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net in-migration
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If the number of immigrants exceeds the number of emigrants, the net migration is positive and the region has __________.
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Mobility
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All types of movement from one location to another.
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Floodplain
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The area subject to flooding during a given number of years according to historical trends.
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Dust Bowl
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Parts of Oklahoma, Kansas, Colorado, New Mexico, and Texas that were hit hard by dry topsoil and high winds that created blinding dust storms; this area of the Great Plains became called that because winds blew away crops and farms, and blew dust from Oklahoma to Albany, New York.
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intervening obstacle
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An environmental or cultural feature of the landscape that hinders migration. Were primarily environmental in the past, but modern transportation changed the dynamic and it is now more likely to be caused by local politics and government.
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E.G. Ravenstein
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British demographer who sought an answer to \”why people voluntarily migrate.\” He studied internal migration in England and proposed the laws of migration involving the use of Pull and Push factors.
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Voluntary migration
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Permanent movement(International migration) that has been undertaken by choice.
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Forced migration
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Permanent movement(International migration) compelled usually by cultural/political factors(Push factor).
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Migration transition
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Change in the migration pattern in a society that results from industrialization, population growth, and other social and economic changes that also produce the demographic transition. Proposed by Wilbur Zelinsky
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Wilbur Zelinsky
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Geographer associated with migration transition–change in the migration pattern in a society that results from the social and economic changes that produce the demographic transition. Stage 2–international. Stage 3&4–internal
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Peaks of Euro Migration to America
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1st Peak -(1607-1840) 90% of immigrants were from Great Britain reaching a dramatic climax in the two decades(where most immigrants started coming from North west Europe) before the U.S Civil War. 2nd Peak – (1860-1890)- Migration dramatically tails of because of U.S Civil War, but reaches a new peak in the 1880’s(again from Northwestern Europe) caused by countries industrializing and reaching stage 2 of demographic transition. 3rd Peak (1890 -1920) – Migration became lower because of economic problems in U.S.S in this era, but by 1910 large amount of migrants from Southern and Eastern Europe.
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Enclosure movement
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The process of consolidating small landholdings into a smaller number of larger farms in England during the eighteenth century., This was the way that the English landowners would now organize their land so that the farmers would become more productive in their work
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Chain migration
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Migration of people to a specific location because relatives or members of the same nationality previously migrated there. (Think China Town, Little Italy, etc etc.
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undocumented immigrants
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Also known as illegal immigrants; migrants who enter a country without proper documentation.
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1986 Immigration Reform and Control Act
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In 1986 Act that issued hundreds of thousands of visas to undocumented immigrants, making them legal migrants. This caused the number of immigrants to increase since the percentage allowed was based on a now larger based population.
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Quota Act of 1921
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This act sets a cap of 3% of each nationality (based on the 1910 census) already in the U.S. to be allowed to immigrate to the U.S., it discriminates against certain nationalities such as Greeks, Poles, and Eastern European Jews.
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National Origins Act
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Act that set quotas for each country at 2 % of the number of people from that country living in the U.S. in 1890. The goal was to reduce immigration from certain countries.
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Brain drain
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Large-scale emigration by talented people.
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Guest workers
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Workers who migrate to the more developed countries of Northern and Western Europe, usually from Southern of Eastern Europe or from North Africa, in search of higher-paying jobs.
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Time contract workers
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A worker who comes to work someplace for a fixed period of time, Typically work in Asia. Workers that work a fixed period in a specific country. Asians in the 19th century worked mines or plantations. Many stayed after contracts expired. Indians worked in Malaysia, British Guiana, E and S Africa, Fiji, Mauritius, and Trinidad. Chinese comprise 3/4th of the population in Singapore, 1/3rd in Malaysia, and 1/10 in Thailand. Most migrants are from SE China.
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Zebulon Pike
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American soldier and explorer whom Pikes Peak in Colorada is named. His Pike expedition often compared to the Lewis and Clark expedition, mapped much of the southern portion of the Louisiana Purchase. Named the Great Plains \”The Great American Desert\”.
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Sunbelt
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The southern and southwestern states, from the Carolinas to California, characterized by warm climate and recently, rapid population growth
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Rustbelt
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Urban areas in New England and Middle West characterized by concentrations of declining industries (steel or textiles).
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Suburbanization
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Movement of upper and middle-class people from urban core areas to the surrounding outskirts to escape pollution as well as deteriorating social conditions (perceived and actual). In North America, the process began in the early nineteenth century and became a mass phenomenon by the second half of the twentieth century.
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Counterurbanization
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Net migration from urban to rural areas in MDCs
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Forced Migration
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Permanent movement compelled usually by cultural factors.
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Internal Migration
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Permanent movement within a particular country.
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International Migration
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Permanent movement from one country to another.
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Interregional Migration
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Permanent movement from one region of a country to another.
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Intraregional Migration
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Permanent movement within one region of a country.
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Pull Factor
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Factor that induces people to move to a new location.
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What are specific examples of economic push and pull factors.
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Push: Places that have few job opportunities.
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What are examples of cultural push and pull factors?
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Push: Slavery or political instability.
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What are examples of environmental push and pull factors?
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Push: Hazardous regions.
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How have intervening obstacles changed?
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There is diminished importance of physical obstacles due to transportation improvements, and more importance in cultural obstacles.
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What do people need to officially migrate?
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Emigrate: Passport.
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What type of push factors are usually responsible for voluntary and forced migration?
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Voluntary: Economic push.
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What would one expect to occur in stage 1 of migration transition on the demographic transition model?
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Very little permanent migration, but lots of mobility in search of food.
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What would one expect to occur in stage 2 of migration transition on the demographic transition model?
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More importance in international migration, as well as internal migration from rural areas to cities.
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What would one expect to occur in stage 4 of migration transition on the demographic transition model?
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International migrants from stage 2 come here, internal migration is from cities to suburbs.
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What where the previous gender characteristics of migrants?
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Most were males traveling long distance.
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What are the present gender characteristics of migrants?
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Mostly females, but males also, traveling long distances.
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Why have characteristics of migrants changed?
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More women are working, likely due to changes in gender roles.
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What has been the recurring family characteristic of migrants?
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Single males, traveling long distances, because they can work in another country and send money back to their families.
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What have been some recent changes in family characteristics of migrants?
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An increasing percentage of US immigrants are children, and an increase in women.
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How does migration from Mexico to the Us support the Demographic Transition Model’s Migrant Transition?
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More than 3/4 of the migrants from Mexico to the US lived in rural areas, or stage 2.
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How does migration from Mexico to the US support the distance-decay function?
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Most Mexican immigrant’s destination of choice are the states bordering Mexico.
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How does seasonality make the Mexican migration to the US a concept of human mobility, rather than permanent migration?
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Mexicans travel across the border and work in the US autumn-spring, then they come back to their families in Mexico with the money they made.
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From what countries and to what countries to people generally move?
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Out of Asia, Latin America and Africa (LDCS)
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Cultural push factors
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slavery, political instability, etc.
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Cultural pull factor
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example, after communists gained control of Eastern Europe, many people in that region were pulled toward the democracies in Western Europe and North America
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Environmental push factor example
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many people have moved from the Sahel region of Northern Africa because of drought conditions
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Environmental pull factor example
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the Rocky Mountains lures people to Colorado
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Intervening Obstacle
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An environmental or cultural feature that hinders migration
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Briefly describe the role of physical geography in examining intervening obstacles and migration
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Many people tried to migrate to a place, but couldn’t because of bodies of water, deserts, mountains, etc. They didn’t have good transportation
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briefly describe the role of transportation in examining intervening obstacles and migration
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long ago, many people walked places by foot or by horse. Which takes a long time and the weather or physical conditions caused people to die.
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Briefly describe the role of political concerns/laws in examining intervening obstacles and migration
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a migrant needs a passport to legally emigrate from a country and a visa to legally immigrate to a new country.

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