Chapter 29 Test: Civil Rights Movement Essay

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Poll tax
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Citizens had to pay tax in order to vote. Tax equaled several days work. Kept African Americans from voting.
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Literacy tests
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You had to pass reading tests that had a lot of questions and you only had a little time to complete the entire test and get everything correct. Unfair tests that kept African Americans from voting.
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Ku Klux Klan (KKK)
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A group formed because they wanted to restore Democratic control of the South and to keep former slaves powerless.
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Civil disobedience
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The refusal to obey with certain laws or to pay taxes and fines.
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Brown v. Board of Education
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African Americans who sued to end segregation in public schools. The Brown decision was limited to public schools but many people hoped that it would eventually end segregation in other public facilities.
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Emmett Till
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His crisis sparked the beginning of the civil rights movement. He was killed because he was black and white people saw him whistling to a white women.
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Montgomery Bus Boycott
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African Americans stopped riding the buses because they wanted to end segregated buses and they knew that buses were mostly filled with African Americans. Made MLK more popular. Started because Rosa Parks was arrested and people were mad.
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Martin L. King Jr.
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Became famous during the Montgomery Bus Boycott. He led the Civil Rights Movement and helped African Americans gain the right to vote. An activist and is president of the SCLC. His message to people was nonviolent protest, he supported it.
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Birmingham Demonstrations
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African Americans wanted to integrate public facilities and gain better jobs and housing. Children’s march occurred. People saw police brutality against children which allowed the change of rights.
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Selma and Bloody Sunday
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MLK and SCLC organized voter-registration drives, including protest march.
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Voting Rights Act
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Banned literacy tests and other laws that kept blacks from registering to vote. Federal officials had to register voters and African Americans registered to vote increased.
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Thurgood Marshall
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The NAACP counsel who led the attorneys who challenged the segregation laws in the courts.
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Great Society
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Programs to help the disenfranchised, poor, elderly, and women and promoted education. Created by Johnson to help those in need.
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Cesar Chavez
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He was a migrant worker (travels from place to place in search of work) who fought for his rights. He started a union for farm workers but not recognized by owners. Organized a strike and boycott for workers.
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Grandfather clause
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As long as your grandfather voted before 1867, you could vote. Helped white males who couldn’t pay poll taxes and pass literacy tests. Blacks weren’t citizens before 1866.
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Jim Crow laws
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Laws that were designed to segregate white and black people in private or public facilities.
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SCLC
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Southern Christian Leadership Conference. A group that coordinated civil rights protests across the South. President is MLK.
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Sit-in Movement
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Four African American students sat at a lunch counter and ordered coffee but the waitress refused to serve them because they were African American so they began to sit there all day every day starting a sit-in.
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Little Rock Nine
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Nine African American students enrolled at Central High School but their were too many segregationists.
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Civil rights
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Personal rights or freedoms that all citizens have which are required by law.
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Nonviolent protest
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Demonstration without violence to advance a political or social cause. Usually seen as civil disobedience.
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Rosa Parks
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She was arrested for not giving up her spot on a bus to a white man.
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March on Washington
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250,000 people marched from Birmingham to the Lincoln Memorial in Washington to build support for civil rights legislation. MLK said his famous I have a Dream speech.United many groups and President Kennedy promised support.
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Freedom Summer
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A voter-organization drive for Southern blacks created by SNCC. They wanted African Americans in politics. They want to vote white people into office that will make a difference in the rights.
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Malcolm X
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A person who rejected the separatist ideas of the Nation of Islam. After Mecca he started to modify his feelings about working with whites (he wants to work with any race). He was assassinated by members from Nation of Islam.
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Children’s March
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Adults were threatened to lose their jobs if they marched so they sent their kids to march instead.
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Nation of Islam
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A branch of Islam founded in the U.S. and urged African Americans to separate from whites. They wanted blacks to be separated from whites.
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Twenty-Fourth Amendment
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Ended poll taxes. Gave the right for citizens to vote.
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Plessy v. Ferguson
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A case in which the Supreme Court ruled that separation of the races in public accommodations was legal.
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Sharecropping
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A system in which landowners gave farm workers land, seed, and tools in return for a part of the crops they raised.
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SNCC
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Student Nonviolent Coordinating Commitee. Civil rights leader saw the success of sit-ins and created this organization to encourage young people to do it to.
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Segregation
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The separation or isolate whites and blacks in housing, schooling, and other ways of life.
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Integration
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The process of uniting of bringing together blacks and whites.
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Boycott
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A form of protest to avoid from dealing with or buying products from a particular group, organization, or country.
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President Dwight Eisenhower
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The president during the Cold War.
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Sit-in
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A form of protest were people occupy a place and refuse to move until their demands are met.
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Freedom Rides
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A protest against segregation on interstate busing in the South.
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Civil Rights Act of 1964
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Banned segregation in public places and created Equal Employment Opportunity Commission to prevent job discrimination.
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Civil Rights Act of 1968
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It prohibited or banned discrimination in housing.
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President Lyndon Johnson
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President during the Civil Rights Movement. Signed the Civil Rights Act.
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Eugene “Bull” Connor
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The Birmingham Public Safety commissioner used violence at the Children’s March and Birmingham Marches to stop protests.
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What were the major effects of Reconstruction on African Americans after the Civil War?
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Poll tax, literacy tests, and grandfather clause was created to be able to register to vote. Unfair to African Americans.
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Why did civil rights leaders choose to fight segregation in education first?
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Because they wanted to have equal education which can give them an opportunity to go into politics.
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*What was the impact or message taken from Emmett Till’s death and trial? (ESSAY QUESTION)
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If change was going to happen people to try and make it happen. It sparked the Civil Rights Movement.
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What was the ruling in the Emmett Till case and what happened to the killers?
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The killers were not guilty because they couldn’t identify the body. But after the killers told their story to a magazine company.
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*What were three goals of the civil rights movement? (ESSAY QUESTION)
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1. End segregation and equality for all people. 2. Ability to vote freely. 3. Gain protection from violence and harassment
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Why were voting rights important to the civil rights movement?
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So that African Americans could vote for whites who supported equality.
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*What were the nonviolent protest tactics used to make the civil rights movement effective? (ESSAY QUESTION)
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Legal cases, boycott, sit-ins, freedom rides, marches, and speeches.
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Describe what happened to protesters during the civil rights movement.
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They were sent to prison.
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Name other groups that fought for their rights after being inspired by the civil rights movement.
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Mexican Americans, Hispanic Americans, and Women.

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