Chapter 23 Practice

question

The respiratory and cardiovascular systems have all of the following functions in common EXCEPT: 1. transport of gases. 2. exchange of gases 3. maintenance of blood pH (a) 1 only (b) 2 only (c) 3 only (d) 1 and 2 are correct (e) 1, 2, and 3 are correct
answer

(e) 1, 2, and 3 are correct
question

Some structures in both the upper and lower respiratory tracts serve as sites for gas diffusion. (a) true (b) false
answer

false
question

The _____ and _____ cartilages of the larynx aid in production of sound. (a) thyroid and epiglottic (b) cricoid and arytenoid (c) arytenoid and corniculate (d) cricoid and cuneiform (e) corniculate and epiglottic
answer

question

Place the layers of the trachea in order from deep to superficial. (a) mucosa, submucosa, hyaline cartilage, adventitia (b) submucosa, mucosa, hyaline cartilage, adventitia (c) adventitia, hyaline cartilage, submucosa, mucosa (d) adventitia, hyaline cartilage, mucosa, submucosa (e) hyaline cartilage, submucosa, mucosa, adventitia
answer

mucosa, submucosa, hyaline cartilage, adventitia
question

As the bronchial tree branches from bronchi to bronchioles, cartilage decreases while smooth muscle increases. (a) true (b) false
answer

true
question

Which of the following statements is NOT correct? (a) The lungs surround the mediastinum. (b) Air normally fills the pleural cavity. (c) The visceral pleura covers the lungs. (d) The parietal pleura lines the thoracic cavity. (e) The parietal and visceral pleura are separated by the pleural cavity.
answer

Air normally fills the pleural cavity.
question

A bronchopulmonary segment is directly supplied by a ______________________. (a) primary bronchus. (b) secondary (lobar) bronchus. (c) tertiary (segmental) bronchus. (d) respiratory bronchiole. (e) alveolar duct.
answer

secondary (lobar) bronchus.
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The respiratory membrane does not include the visceral and parietal pleura. (a) true (b) false
answer

true
question

A mechanical ventilator may aid directly in _______ (a) pulmonary ventilation. (b) external respiration. (c) internal respiration. (d) pulmonary ventilation and external respiration are correct. (e) pulmonary ventilation, external respiration, and internal respiration are correct.
answer

pulmonary ventilation.
question

Decreased surfactant will affect alveolar surface tension to cause decreased pulmonary ventilation, but will have no effect on lung compliance. (a) true (b) false
answer

false
question

If you were to take 10 breaths/min and inhaled about 600 mL/breath, your minute ventilation rate would be (a) 60 mL/min. (b) 6 L/min. (c) 10 mL/min. (d) 1 L/min. (e) 10 L/min.
answer

6 L/min.
question

The destruction of alveoli seen in emphysema would cause a decrease in alveolar ventilation rate. (a) true (b) false
answer

false
question

Which of the following statements is CORRECT? (a) According to Dalton’s law, if the partial pressure of oxygen in the air were to decrease, the partial pressures of nitrogen and carbon dioxide would increase to compensate. (b) According to Dalton’s law, gas at a low partial pressure will remain in solution longer than if that gas were present at a higher partial pressure. (c) According to Henry’s law, little nitrogen is normally present in the blood because of the low solubility of nitrogen. (d) All of these choices are correct. (e) None of these choices are correct.
answer

According to Henry’s law, little nitrogen is normally present in the blood because of the low solubility of nitrogen.
question

As you move from the top of a mountain to sea level, the partial pressure of oxygen increases because total atmospheric pressure is increasing. (a) true (b) false
answer

true
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In external respiration __________, while __________ occurs in internal respiration. (a) oxygen moves from the alveoli to the pulmonary capillaries; carbon dioxide moves from the pulmonary capillaries to the alveoli. (b) oxygen moves from the alveoli to the pulmonary capillaries; oxygen moves from the pulmonary capillaries to the alveoli. (c) carbon dioxide moves from the alveoli to the pulmonary capillaries; carbon dioxide moves from the pulmonary capillaries to the alveoli. (d) oxygen moves from the alveoli to the pulmonary capillaries; oxygen moves from the tissues to the systemic capillaries. (e) oxygen moves from the alveoli to the pulmonary capillaries; carbon dioxide moves from the tissues to the systemic capillaries.
answer

oxygen moves from the alveoli to the pulmonary capillaries; carbon dioxide moves from the tissues to the systemic capillaries.
question

All of the following affect the rate of pulmonary and systemic gas exchange EXCEPT (a) external air temperature. (b) partial pressure difference of the gases. (c) surface area available for gas exchange. (d) diffusion distance. (e) molecular weight and solubility of the gases.
answer

external air temperature.
question

In a resting person, more oxygen molecules are attached to each hemoglobin molecule in blood in the pulmonary arteries than in the pulmonary veins. (a) true (b) false
answer

false
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All of the following statements are True EXCEPT (a) 2,3-bisphosphoglycerate decreases the affinity of hemoglobin for oxygen. (b) hemoglobin will bind more oxygen when the partial pressure is low than when the partial pressure is high. (c) oxygen dissociates more readily from hemoglobin as pH decreases. (d) increased partial pressure of carbon dioxide increases oxygen dissociation from hemoglobin. (e) decreasing temperature will cause a shift to the left in the hemoglobin saturation curve.
answer

hemoglobin will bind more oxygen when the partial pressure is low than when the partial pressure is high.
question

Hemoglobin can unload more oxygen in metabolically active tissues than in tissues at rest because (a) the partial pressure of carbon dioxide is higher. (b) lactic and carbonic acids produced by metabolically active tissues decreases pH which decreases the affinity of hemoglobin for oxygen. (c) increasing body temperature decreases the affinity of hemoglobin for oxygen. (d) All of these choices are True. (e) None of these choices are True.
answer

All of these choices are True.
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In the medullary rhythmicity area, the dorsal respiratory group (inspiratory area) establishes the basic rhythm of quiet breathing while the ventral respiratory group (expiratory area) remains inactive. (a) true (b) false
answer

true
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Signals from an active medullary respiratory center can override the signals from the pontine respiratory group which normally help in prolonged inhalation. (a) true (b) false
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false
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The respiratory system, along with some of the digestive system, begins as an outgrowth of the foregut. (a) true (b) false
answer

true
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Age-related changes in the respiratory system may cause 1.decrease in vital capacity of as much as 35% by age 70 due to decreased tissue elasticity. 2. an increased incidence of pneumonia and bronchitis because of decreased alveolar macrophage activity and ciliary action in the respiratory tract. 3. an increase in tidal volume due to damage to alveoli and decreased surfactant production. (a) 1 only (b) 2 only (c) 3 only (d) 1 and 2 are correct (e) 1, 2, and 3 are correct
answer

1 and 2 are correct
question

The respiratory zone does NOT include any structures of the upper respiratory system. (a) true (b) false
answer

true
question

The internal structures of the external nose serve which of the following functions? 1. warming, moistening, and filtering incoming air 2. creating resonance 3. increasing gas exchange (A) 1 only (B) 2 only (C) 3 only (D) 1 and 2 (E) 1, 2, and 3
answer

1 and 2
question

The perpendicular plate of ethmoid and the vomer make up the (A) superior concha (B) middle concha (C) Hard palate (D) nasal septum (E) maxillary sinus
answer

nasal septum
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The pharyngeal tonsil is found in the (a) nasopharynx. (b) oropharynx. (c) adenopharynx. (d) laryngopharynx. (e) hypopharynx.
answer

nasopharynx
question

Surfactant lowers the surface tension of alveolar fluid; it is produced by (a) alveolar macrophages. (b) fibroblasts. (c) type I alveolar cells. (d) type II alveolar cells. (e) goblet cells.
answer

type II alveolar cells
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As you sit quietly reading these questions, you use the diaphragm, external intercostal, and scalene muscles. (a) true (b) false
answer

false
question

Exhalation begins when the (a) elastic recoil of the chest wall and lungs occurs. (b) internal intercostal muscles contract. (c) inspiratory muscles relax. (d) elastic recoil of the chest wall and lungs occurs and internal intercostal muscles contract. (e) elastic recoil of the chest wall and lungs occurs, internal intercostal muscles contract, and inspiratory muscles relax.
answer

internal intercostal muscles contract.
question

Which is NOT true about surfactant? (a) it is a mixture of phospholipids and lipoproteins (b) it is made as soon as the alveoli begin to develop (c) it interferes with hydrogen bonding between water molecules (d) it is made by septal cells in the alveoli
answer

it is made as soon as the alveoli begin to develop
question

Spirometry testing of a young man shows that he has a total lung capacity of 6,000 mL. What is his vital capacity? (a) 500 mL. (b) 1,200 mL. (c) 2,400 mL. (d) 3,100 mL. (e) 4,800 mL.
answer

4,800 mL
question

According to Henry’s Law, the greater the difference in partial pressure, the faster the rate of diffusion. (a) true (b) false
answer

false
question

Fetal hemoglobin has a lower affinity for oxygen than does adult hemoglobin because it binds 2,3-bisphosphoglycerate less strongly. (a) true (b) false
answer

false
question

Carbon dioxide is transported in the blood 1. as dissolved carbon dioxide. 2. as bicarbonate ions. 3. bound to heme. (a) 1 only (b) 2 only (c) 3 only (d) 1 and 2 (e) 1, 2, and 3
answer

1 and 2
question

As the amount of oxyhemoglobin decreases, the carbon dioxide carrying capacity of the blood increases. This relationship is known as (a) The Bohr effect (b) The Haldane effect (c) Boyle’s law (d) Henry’s law (e) Dalton’s law
answer

The Haldane effect
question

The respiratory diverticulum that gives rise to the glands of the trachea, bronchi, and alveoli is derived from (a) ectoderm (b) mesoderm (c) endoderm (d) mesenchyme (e) none of these choices
answer

endoderm
question

Unlike capillaries in the rest of the body, pulmonary capillaries vasoconstrict when localized hypoxia occurs. (a) true (b) false
answer

true
question

Which of the following is NOT involved in respiration? (a) pulmonary ventilation (b) internal respiration (c) external ventilation (d) external respiration
answer

external ventilation
question

The respiratory zone is composed of the trachea and the paranasal sinuses. (a) True (b) False
answer

false
question

__________ is the inflammation of the nasal mucosa accompanied by excessive mucus production, nasal congestion, and postnasal drip. Laryngitis Rhinitis Bronchitis Sinusitis
answer

rhinitis
question

Which of the following lists the regions of the pharynx from superior to inferior? (a) laryngopharynx, oropharynx, nasopharynx (b) nasopharynx, oropharynx, laryngopharynx (c) nasopharynx, laryngopharynx, oropharynx (d) oropharynx, laryngopharynx, nasopharynx
answer

nasopharynx, oropharynx, laryngopharynx
question

The __________ is covered by a mucosa containing taste buds and keeps food out of the lower respiratory passages. (a) glottis (b) epiglottis (c) vestibular folds (d) uvula
answer

epiglottis
question

The bronchial, or respiratory, tree branches approximately 23 times within the lungs. (a) True (b) False
answer

true
question

The __________ are the main site of gas exchange within the lungs. respiratory bronchioles alveoli hila bronchi
answer

alveoli
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The two lungs differ in shape and size. True False
answer

true
question

The __________ is the elastic connective tissue found within the lungs. visceral pleura parietal pleura pulmonary plexus stroma
answer

stroma
question

Henry’s law states that the total pressure exerted by a mixture of gases is the sum of the pressures exerted independently by each gas in the mixture. (a) True (b) False
answer

false
question

Henry’s law states that when a gas is in contact with a liquid, that gas will dissolve in the liquid in proportion to its partial pressure. True False
answer

true
question

Which form of hypoxia occurs when body cells are unable to use O2 even though adequate amounts are delivered? (This type of hypoxia is usually the consequence of metabolic poisons, such as cyanide.) anemic hypoxia histotoxic hypoxia hypoxemic hypoxia ischemic (stagnant) hypoxia
answer

histotoxic hypoxia
question

Which form of CO2 transport accounts for the greatest amount of CO2 transported in blood? (a) dissolved in plasma (b) as carbon monoxide in plasma (c) as bicarbonate ions in plasma (d) chemically bound to hemoglobin
answer

as bicarbonate ions in plasma
question

The increase in ventilation in response to metabolic needs is called __________. Hering-Breuer reflex hyperventilation hyperpnea hypocapnia
answer

hyperpnea
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Emphysema is distinguished by permanent enlargement of the alveoli and loss of lung elasticity. True False
answer

true
question

Lung cancer is among the easiest forms of cancer to successfully treat and cure. True False
answer

false
question

1) Which of the following is NOT considered part of the respiratory system? A) nose B) mouth C) throat D) larynx E) trachea
answer

mouth
question

Which of the following classifications of respiratory structures is correctly described? A) structural, upper respiratory system: nose, pharynx and associated structures B) structural, lower respiratory system: larynx, trachea, bronchi, lungs C) functional, conducting portion: interconnecting cavities and tubes outside and within the lungs D) functional, Respiratory portion: tissues within the lungs where gas exchange occurs E) All of these are correct.
answer

All of these are correct
question

Nolan “caught” a sharply hit baseball with his face and now his nose is broken. Which of the following are external structures that have probably been damaged? A) maxilla, nasal, frontal bones B) septal, lateral and alar cartilages C) ethmoid bone and inferior nasal conchae D) A and B are correct. E) A, B and C are correct.
answer

a and b are correct
question

Which of the following is a function of the external nose? A) modifying speech vibrations B) detecting gustatory sensations C) cooling and drying air entering the respiratory system D) A and B are correct. E) A, B and C are correct.
answer

modifying speech vibrations
question

The internal nose A) communicates posteriorly with the external nose. B) communicates anteriorly with the pharynx. C) receives drainage from the paranasal sinuses. D) is divided horizontally by the nasal septum. E) is divided into lateral, medial, and frontal meatuses
answer

receives drainage from the paranasal sinuses.
question

Which of the following is NOT correct? A) The olfactory epithelium lies in a mucous membrane covering the inferior nasal conchae. B) Hairs in the nasal vestibule help remove large particles from the air. C) Conchae and their meatuses increase surface area and help moisten entering air. D) Mucus in the nasal cavity helps moisten air and removes smaller dust particles. E) Most of the air inhaled does not directly enter the paranasal sinuses
answer

The olfactory epithelium lies in a mucous membrane covering the inferior nasal conchae.
question

The pharynx A) begins at the external nares. B) is a tube lined with a mucous membrane. C) is usually called the voice box or Adam’s apple. D) begins at the fauces and ends at the epiglottis. E) is a tube composed of smooth muscle
answer

is a tube lined with a mucous membrane.
question

Which portion of the pharynx communicates with the internal nares and Eustachian tubes? A) laryngopharynx B) oropharynx C) nasopharynx D) A and B are correct. E) A, B and C are correct.
answer

nasopharynx
question

Which of the following is correctly described? A) nasopharynx: usually receives only air, helps equalize pressure in inner ear B) oropharynx: receives food and air, contains palatine and lingual tonsils C) laryngopharynx: receives only food, lined with ciliated pseudostratified columnar epithelium D) A and B are correct. E) A, B and C are correct.
answer

A and B are correct.
question

The larynx A) connects the pharynx to the trachea. B) is the primary site of voice production. C) normally receives only air. D) lies anterior to the esophagus. E) All of these are correct.
answer

All of these are correct.
question

The trachea A) conducts air from the larynx into the bronchi. B) is lined with pseudo-stratified ciliated columnar epithelium. C) is usually located posterior to the esophagus. D) A and B are correct. E) A, B and C are correct.
answer

A and B are correct.
question

The primary bronchi A) are branches arising from the trachea near the level of vertebra C5. B) carry air toward each lung. C) are more muscular than cartilaginous. D) are lined with stratified squamous epithelium. E) All of these are correct.
answer

carry air toward each lung.
question

The airways that directly carry air to each lobe of a lung are the A) terminal bronchioles B) bronchioles C) tertiary bronchi D) secondary bronchi E) primary bronchi
answer

secondary bronchi
question

As the diameters of the respiratory passages decrease, which of the following is observed? A) The amount of cartilage in the walls of the passages increases. B) Simple cuboidal epithelial linings are replaced by pseudostratified squamous epithelia. C) The walls of the passages become more muscular. D) More goblet cells are observed in the epithelial lining. E) All of these are correct.
answer

The walls of the passages become more muscular.
question

Each of the following is part of the respiratory membrane EXCEPT the: A) alveolar wall B) lymphatic vessel basement membrane C) epithelial basement membrane of the alveolar wall D) capillary basement membrane E) capillary endothelial cells
answer

lymphatic vessel basement membrane
question

The basic steps of gas exchange, or respiration, in the body include A) pulmonary ventilation B) external respiration C) internal respiration D) A and B are correct. E) A, B and C are correct
answer

A, B and C are correct
question

When the diaphragm and external intercostal muscles contract, which of the following actions does NOT occur? A) the diaphragm moves inferiorly. B) the volume of the thoracic cavity increases. C) the intrapleural pressure increases. D) the intrapulmonic pressure decreases. E) air moves into the lungs.
answer

the intrapleural pressure increases.
question

Dalton’s law A) helps explain how gases move down their pressure gradients. B) states that each gas in a mixture exerts its own pressure as though no other gas was present. C) helps explain how the solubility of a gas relates to its diffusion. D) A and B are correct. E) B and C are correct.
answer

A and B are correct.
question

External respiration A) is also called systemic gas exchange. B) is the exchange of gases between the lungs and the blood. C) moves CO2 into the blood and O2 out of the blood. D) A and B are correct. E) A, B and C are correct.
answer

is the exchange of gases between the lungs and the blood.
question

During internal respiration, A) gases are exchanged between the blood and the tissues. B) 75% of the O2 is removed from the blood. C) the PCO2 in the tissues rises from 40 to 45 mmHg. D) A and B are correct. E) A, B and C are correct
answer

gases are exchanged between the blood and the tissues.
question

How is CO2 transported in blood? A) as dissolved CO2 B) as carbamino compounds C) as bicarbonate ions D) A and B are correct. E) A, B and C are correct.
answer

A, B and C are correct.
question

Which of the following are classified as chronic obstructive pulmonary disorders? A) chronic bronchitis B) emphysema C) pneumonia D) A and B are correct. E) A, B and C are correct
answer

A and B are correct.
question

Which of the following is an inherited disease of the respiratory system? A) coryza B) cystic fibrosis C) pneumonia D) SARS E) tuberculosis
answer

cystic fibrosis
question

Which one of the below is not a function of the respiratory system: A) allows oxygen from the air to enter the blood and carbon dioxide to leave the blood and enter the air. B) can alter the pH by changing oxygen levels. C) provides protection against some microorganisms by preventing their entry into the body and by removing them from respiratory surfaces. D) allows for speech and sound generation.
answer

question

The vestibule just inside each naris is lined by ________________ epithelium. A) stratified squamous B) simple cuboidal C) stratified cuboidal D) pseudostratified columnar
answer

question

The external nose is the visible structure that forms a prominent feature of the face. The largest part of the external nose is composed of: A) nasal bones B) elastic cartilage C) fibrocartilage D) hyaline cartilage
answer

question

The partition dividing the nasal cavity into right and left parts is called the A) hard palate B) nasal septum C) nasal conchae D) vestibule
answer

question

Air is filtered as it moves through narrow curved channels in the nasal cavity called _______________ and the debris is trapped and moved towards the pharynx by _______________ epithelium. A) meati, pseudostratified ciliated columnar B) conchae, pseudostratified ciliated columnar C) meati, stratified squamous D) conchiae stratified squamous
answer

question

Which one of the cavities or ducts does not drain into or out of the nasal cavity? A) vestibule B) paranasal sinus C) choanae D) auditory tube
answer

question

Which one of the functions is not of the nasal cavity? A) filters the air B) provides exchange site for O2 and CO2 C) humidifies the air D) warms the air
answer

question

Which one of the below is lined by a pseudostratified ciliated columnar epithelium? A) vestibule B) nasopharynx C) oropharynx D) laryngopharynx
answer

question

The posterior surface of the nasopharynx contains the ___________ tonsils. A) palatine B) oral C) lingual D) pharyngeal
answer

question

The soft palate including the uvula closes off the ______________ when swallowing. A) oropharynx B) nasopharynx C) glottis D) laryngopharynx
answer

question

The role of the false vocal cords or vestibular folds in swallowing is to A) prevent air from entering the lungs too quickly. B) support the true vocal cords. C) prevent food and liquids from entering the larynx. D) vibrate when air is forced over them resulting in sound production.
answer

question

Laryngitis is an infection or inflammation of the mucosal epithelium of the A) true vocal cords. B) false vocal cords. C) laryngopharynx. D) oropharynx.
answer

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