Chapter 21 Nuclear Chemistry Vocabulary Answers

question

nuclide
answer

an atom that is identified by the number of protons and neutrons in its nucleus
question

nucleons
answer

particles in the nucleus
question

mass defect
answer

the difference between the mass of an atom and the sum of the masses of the atom’s protons, neutrons, and electrons
question

nuclear binding energy
answer

the energy released when a nucleus is formed from nucleons
question

nuclear shell model
answer

a model that represents nucleons as existing in different energy levels, or shells, in the nucleus
question

magic numbers
answer

the numbers (2, 8, 20, 28, 50, 82, and 126) that represent the number of particles in an extra-stable atomic nucleus that has completed shells of protons and neutrons
question

nuclear reaction
answer

a reaction that affects the nucleus of an atom
question

transmutation
answer

the transformation of atoms of one element into atoms of a different element as a result of a nuclear reaction
question

Radioactive decay
answer

the disintegration of an unstable atomic nucleus into one or more different nuclides, accompanied by the emission of radiation, the nuclear capture or ejection of electrons, or fission
question

nuclear radiation
answer

the particles that are released from the nucleus during radioactive decay, such as neutrons, electrons, and photons
question

radioactive nuclide
answer

a nuclide that contains isotopes that decay and that emit radiation
question

alpha particle
answer

a positively charged atom that is released in the disintegration of radioactive elements and that consists of two protons and two neutrons
question

beta particle
answer

a charged electron emitted during certain types of radioactive decay, such as beta decay
question

positron
answer

a particle that has the same mass and spin as an electron but that has a positive charge
question

electron capture
answer

the process in which an inner orbital electron is captured by the nucleus of the atom that contains the electron
question

Gamma rays
answer

high-energy electromagnetic waves emitted from a nucleus as it changes from an excited state to a ground energy state
question

Half-life
answer

the time required for half of a sample of a radioactive isotope to break down by radioactive decay to form a daughter isotope
question

decay series
answer

a series of radioactive nuclides produced by successive radioactive decay until a stable nuclide is reached
question

parent nuclide
answer

a radionuclide that yields a specific daughter nuclide as a later member of a radioactive series
question

daughter nuclides
answer

the nuclides produced by the decay of the parent nuclides
question

artificial transmutations
answer

bombardment of nuclei with charged and uncharged particles
question

Transuranium elements
answer

elements with more than 92 protons in their nuclei
question

Radioactive dating
answer

the process by which the approximate age of an object is determined based on the amount of certain radioactive nuclides present
question

nuclear fission
answer

the splitting of the nucleus of a large atom into two or more fragments; releases additional neutrons and energy
question

nuclear fusion
answer

the combination of the nuclei of small atoms to form a larger nucleus; releases energy
question

critical mass
answer

the minimum mass of a fissionable isotope that provides the number of neutrons needed to sustain a chain reaction
question

chain reaction
answer

a reaction in which the material that starts the reaction is also one of the products and can start another reaction

Get instant access to
all materials

Become a Member