Chapter 20 Multiple Choice Study Guide

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The branch of biology that is concerned with identifying, naming and classifying organisms is called _____. A) taxidermy B) ecology C) systematics D) taxonomy
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D. taxonomy
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Aristotle created a primitive method of classifying organisms as early as 350 BC. A) True B) False
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A. True
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The binomial system of naming species was developed by _____. A) Mendel B) Linnaeus C) Darwin D) Watson and Crick
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B. Linnaeus
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The first word in an organism’s binomial name refers to the _____. A) family B) species C) genus D) kingdom
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C. genus
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Latin scientific names identify specific organisms whose common names may vary from country to country. A) True B) False
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A. True
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The specific epithet sometimes tells us something descriptive about the organism. A) True B) False
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A. True
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The second word in an organism’s scientific name _____. A) refers to one species within the genus B) is the specific epithet C) gives no clue as to species if used alone D) all of the above
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D. all of the above
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A natural system of classification reflects the evolutionary history of organisms. A) True B) False
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A.True
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Changes are made in classification when _____ data increases. A) molecular B) fossil C) anatomical D) all of the above
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D. all of the above
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The field of taxonomy is static and unchanging. A) True B) False
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B. False
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Approximately _____ species of animals, plants and microorganisms have been named. A) 500,000 B) 1.5 million C) 3 million D) 30 million
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B. 1.5 million
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The genus name can be used alone to refer to a group of related species. A) True B) False
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A. True
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For Linnaeus, each species _____. A) could be distinguished by its unique structural characteristics B) was reproductively isolated C) was distinguished by its DNA D) had a specific geographic range
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A. could be distinguished by its unique structural characteristics
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A three-part name is sometimes used to refer to a genus, species and subspecies. A) True B) False
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A. True
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The biological definition of a species _____. A) recognizes that distinctive characteristics that are passed from parent to offspring B) states that members of a species interbreed C) says that members of a species share the same gene pool D) all of the above
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D. all of the above
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Sexually reproducing organisms are always reproductively isolated. A) True B) False
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B. False
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Species in the same genus share a more recent common ancestor than do species from different genera. A) True B) False
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A. True
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The plant kingdom uses the category _____ instead of phylum. A) genus B) order C) domain D) division
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D. division
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Organisms in the same kingdom have specific characteristics in common. A) True B) False
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B. False
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The most inclusive category of classification is _____. A) species B) kingdom C) domain D) class
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C. domain
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Organisms in a particular classification category have _____ features in common. A) structural B) molecular C) chromosomal D) all of the above
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D. all of the above
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The higher the classification category, the more inclusive it is. A) True B) False
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A. True
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Sexual dimorphism in some species may make it difficult to tell when an organism belongs to a particular species. A) True B) False
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A. True
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Organisms in the class Mammalia all have _____. A) milk producing mammary glands B) cells with a membrane-bounded nucleus C) a dorsal hollow nerve cord D) all of the above
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D. all of the above
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Organisms classified in Kingdom Animalia _____. A) are motile unicellular organisms B) have a notochord at some time in their life cycle C) have hair D) lack claws, scales, horns and hoofs
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A. are motile unicellular
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Systematics _____. A) studies the diversity of organisms at all levels of organization B) determines the evolutionary history of a group of organisms C) both A and B
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C. both A and B
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When two species are closely related they _____. A) share a gene pool B) share a common ancestor C) interbreed D) all of the above
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B. share a common ancestor
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A _____ character is present in the common ancestor and all members of a group. A) primitive B) derived
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A. primitive
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A diagram that indicates common ancestors and lines of descent is called a _____. A) karyotype B) pedigree chart C) phylogenetic tree D) Punnett square
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C. phylogenetic tree
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Each line of descent from a common ancestor has different derived characters. A) True B) False
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A. True
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Which of the following statements about the fossil record is true? A) Fossils can be dated. B) It may not be possible to tell which group a fossil is related. C) The fossil record is incomplete since soft parts are eaten or decay before they can be buried. D) all of the above
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D. all of the above
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Homologous structures are _____. A) the result of common descent B) have the same function in different groups but don’t have a common ancestry C) are the result of convergent evolution D) all of the above
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A. the results of common descent
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Cacti and spurges adapted to hot, dry environments on different continents through _____. A) parallel evolution B) convergent evolution C) common descent
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B. convergent evolution
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The relatedness of groups of organisms is more accurately determined when _____ data is examined. A) molecular B) fossil C) homology
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A. molecular
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During DNA hybridization, the more _____ related two species are, the better the DNA strands stick together. A) distantly B) closely
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B. closely
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The sequencing of _____ helped investigators conclude that all living things can be classified into one of three domains. A) DNA B) cytochrome c C) rRNA D) hemoglobin
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C. rRNA
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When determining the phylogeny of closely related species, investigators study _____ because it changes so quickly. A) rRNA B) mitochondrial DNA C) cytochrome c D) nuclear DNA
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B. mitochondrial DNA
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In cladistics, phylogeny is determined by analyzing shared _____ characters. A) primitive B) derived C) both A and B
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B. derived
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A cladogram is considered a phylogenetic tree. A) True B) False
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A. True
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The structures that are present in the outgroup and also in the study group are _____. A) primitive characters B) shared derived characters
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A. primitive characteristics
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The taxa that will be placed in clades in a cladogram form the _____. A) outgroup B) study group
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B. study groups
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A cladogram is constructed so the fewest number of unexplained shared derived characters exist. A) True B) False
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A. True
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What is the sequence in which the following characters evolved during the evolutionary history of vertebrates? 1. lungs and three-chambered heart 2. vertebrae 3. amniotic egg and internal fertilization A) 1, 2, 3 B) 2, 1, 3 C) 3, 1, 2 D) none of the above
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B. 2, 1, 3
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Which of the following is true of a cladogram? A) It is subjective and reflects the bias of the investigator who created it. B) It tells us the exact time at which derived characters evolved. C) It shows the sequence in which characters evolved in the group being studied. D) none of the above
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C. It shows the sequence in which characters evolved in the group being studied.
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Characters found in one or scattered taxa are included in a cladogram. A) True B) False
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B. False
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According to cladists, crocodiles, dinosaurs, and birds should not be in the same subclass. A) True B) False
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B. False
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Species are classified according to the number of similarities they have in _____ systematics. A) traditional B) cladistic C) phenetic
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C. phenetic
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Traditionalists stress _____ when constructing phylogenetic trees. A) common ancestry B) the degree of structural difference among divergent groups C) both A and B
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C. both A and B
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Traditionalists classify mammals and birds into _____. A) separate classes B) the same clade
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A. separate classes
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Traditionalists say _____ evolved from reptiles. A) birds B) amphibians C) mammals D) both A and C
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D. both A and C
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Cladists are very strict about making sure all taxa are monophyletic. A) True B) False
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A. True
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In what order would phenetic systematists construct a phenogram? 1. count the number of traits two species share 2. measure as many traits as possible 3. estimate the degree of relatedness A) 1, 2, 3 B) 2, 3, 1 C) 3, 1, 2 D) 2, 1, 3
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D. 2, 1, 3
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An inherent problem with phenograms is that phenetic systematists ignore the possibility that some of the shared characteristics may be the result of convergent or parallel evolution. A) True B) False
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A. True
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The five kingdoms are distinguished on the basis of type of _____. A) cell B) nutrition C) level of organization D) all of the above
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D. all of the above
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From Aristotle’s time until the mid-twentieth century, only two kingdoms were recognized. A) True B) False
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A. True
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Using a traditional five kingdom system of classification, a multicellular, autotrophic, eukaryotic organism would be classified as a _____. A) protist B) fungus C) plant D) animal
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C. plant
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Using a traditional five kingdom system of classification, a prokaryotic organism is classified as a _____. A) fungus B) moneran C) animal D) protist
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B. moneran
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In the 1880s, Ernst Haeckel proposed adding the _____ kingdom to the system of classification in order to separate the unicellular microscopic organisms from the multicellular largely macroscopic ones. A) protist B) monera C) fungus D) animal
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A. protist
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Which of the following does not describe at least some of the organisms of kingdom Protista? A) eukaryotic B) unicellular C) photosynthetic D) prokaryotic
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D. prokaryotic
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It is suggested that protists evolved from _____according to the five kingdom system of classification. A) plants B) fungi C) monerans D) animals
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C. monerans
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Which of the following is best described as a heterotrophic saprotroph? A) fungi B) plants C) animals
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A. fungi
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The kingdom Protista contains a diverse group of organisms that are hard to classify and define. A) True B) False
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A. True
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Kingdoms Protista, Fungi, Plantae and Animalia contain organisms composed of _____ cells. A) prokaryotic B) eukaryotic
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B. eukaryotic
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Organisms that are eukaryotes that form spores, lack flagella, and have cell walls containing chitin are classified as _____. A) plants B) animals C) fungi D) protists
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C. fungi
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According to the five kingdom system of classification, fungi, plants and animals are believed to have evolved from protists via three separate lines of evolution. A) True B) False
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A. True
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Which of the following does not practice sexual reproduction? A) monerans B) animals C) fungi D) plants
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A. monerans
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Which of the following categories of classification is higher than the kingdom category? A) superorder B) division C) domain D) species
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C. domain
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Which of the following would be classified as Archaea? A) thermoacidophiles B) methanogens C) halophiles D) all of the above
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D. all of the above
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The archaea have branched phospholipids in their plasma membranes which may make the membrane more resistant to extreme environmental conditions. A) True B) False
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A. True
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Organisms in the Domain Eukarya all have cells with _____. A) a cell wall B) a nucleus C) chloroplasts D) centrioles
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B. a nucleus
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The organisms which used to be classified in Kingdom Monera are now classified as Domain _____. A) Archaea B) Bacteria C) Eukarya D) both A and B
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D. both A and B
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The archaea and eukarya are more closely related to each other than either is to the bacteria. A) True B) False
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A. True
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The domain Eukarya contains _____ kingdoms. A) one B) two C) three D) four
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D. four
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The ability to quickly sequence genes will do away with the need for any subjective analyses and make classification a purely objective science. A) True B) False
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A. True
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The sequencing of _____ suggests that all organisms evolved from a common ancestor along three distinct lineages. A) mitochondrial DNA B) rRNA C) cytochrome c
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B. rRNA
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Which of the following is a kingdom of multicellular, photosynthetic organsisms from the domain eukarya? A) Animalia. B) Plantae. C) Archaea. D) Fungi.
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B. Plantae

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