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Chapter 2 Quiz Questions

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Gestalt therapy was developed by: A. Carl Rogers B. Sigmund Freud C. Albert Bandura D. Frederick (Fritz) Perls
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D.
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According to Carl Rogers, a child who did not receive unconditional positive regard in early life is likely to acquire: A. schizophrenia B. conditions of worth C. self-actualization D. phobias
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B.
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Cognitive therapists guide clients to challenge their own dysfunctional: A. dreams B. behaviors C. thoughts D. emotions
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C.
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Depression has been linked to low activity of the neurotransmitters ___ and ___. A. dopamine; endorphin B. GABA; EDTA C. serotonin; norepinephrine D. cortisol; MDMA
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C.
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Huntington’s disease has been traced to a loss of cells in the: A. hippocampus B. basal ganglia C. hypothalamus D. forebrain
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B.
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In science, the perspectives used to explain phenomena are known as: A. paradigms B. organizers C. categories D. denominations
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A.
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___ theorists believe that people are motivated by a need to have relationships with others and that severe problems in the relationships between children and their caregivers may lead to abnormal development. A. Ego B. Self C. Behavioral D. Object relations
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D.
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In which of the paradigms of abnormal psychology is the role of the therapist thought to be that of a teacher? A. the biological model B. The existential model C. the multicultural model D. the behavioral model
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D.
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The example of a young boy developing a fear of sand because there is a sandbox in the yard where a dog barks and lunges demonstrates a principle of: A. operant conditioning B. modeling C. classical conditioning D. transference learning
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C.
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The oldest and most famous of the modern psychological models is the ___ model. A. behavioral B. eclectic C. cognitive D. psychodynamic
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D.
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Which is not one of the three types of biological treatments used today? A. drug therapy B. insulin coma C. psychosurgery D. electroconvulsive therapy
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B.
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According to Freud, the id operates in accordance with the ___ principle. A. morality B. reality C. pleasure D. constriction
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C.
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According to psychodynamic theorists, when people behave with their therapist the way they interacted with their parents, they are demonstrating: A. resistance B. catharsis C. transference D. fixation
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C.
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___ are chemicals released by endocrine glands into the bloodstream. A. Genes B. Synapses C. Neurotransmitters D. Hormones
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D.
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Which is an inaccurate statement about the role of genes in abnormal behavior? A. Genes probably play no part in mental disorders B. The Human Genome Protect, completed in 2000, helps identify the precise contribution of various genes to mental disorders C. Each human cell contains about 30,000 genes, some of which may contribute to mental disorders D. In most cases, several genes combine to help produce dysfunctional behavior
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A>
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Which of the following minority groups of individuals in the United States are more likely to stop therapy sooner than white Americans? A. Native Americans B. Asian Americans C. Hispanic Americans D. All of the answers are correct.
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D.
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What is the main different between group therapy and self-help group? A. Group therapy is less expensive then a self-help group since the members have a set time and place where they are going to meet B. In group therapy there is a trained therapist who leads the interaction, while a self-help group is conducted by people who share a similar problem without the help of a professional clinician C. Group therapy must be conducted by a person who shared the same problem as the group members, while a self-help group is run by a therapist who has no involvement in the problem that the other group members face D. Self-help groups provide far more confidentiality to the group members than a group therapy situation
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B.
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Which model of abnormality rests on the deterministic assumption that no symptom or behavior is “accidental” and that all behavior is determined by past experiences? A. the psychodynamic model B. the cognitive model C. the sociocultural model D. the feminist model
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A.
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The basic premise of family therapy is: A. the entire family is viewed as the unit of treatment, even if only one of the members receives a clinical diagnosis B. each of the family members must be diagnosed if an insurance company is to pay for the treatment C. It is far easier to bring about change in family therapy as the therapist can side with the parents and convince the child that they need to fix their own problem D. parents are usually the problem and the therapist can only prove that point with them in the therapy room
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A.
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Which contemporary psychodynamic approach holds that therapists are key figures in the lives of patients – figures whose reactions and beliefs should be included in the therapy? A. Gestalt psychodynamic therapy B. short-term psychodynamic therapy C. object relations therapy D. relational psychoanalytic therapy
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D.
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Albert Bandura argued that in order to feel happy and function effectively, people must develop a positive sense of: A. ego B. self-efficacy C. self- actualization D. transference
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B.
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According to Freud, ___ is a condition in which the id, ego, and superego do not mature properly and are frozen at an early stage of development. A. fixation B. overcompensation C. sublimation D. displacement
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B.
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Which of the following psychological difficulties are more highly reported by those in the American Indian population as compared with white Americans? A. “serious psychological distress” B. “extreme sadness” C. “high alcoholism” D. all of the above
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D.
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Which of the following would be the type of prevention that seeks to provide treatment as soon as it is needed so that moderate or severe disorders do not become long-term problems? A. primary prevention B. secondary prevention C. tertiary prevention D. florid prevention
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C.
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The ___ helps to regulate emotions and memory. A. basal ganglia B. hippocampus C. corpus callosum D. thalamus
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B.
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Behavioral therapists base their explanations and treatments of mental abnormality on principles of: A. relationships B. ego development C. dream analysis D. learning
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D.
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Which perspective is the most controversial in the clinical field of mental abnormality? A. biological B. sociocultural C. evolutionary D. behavioral
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C.
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Cybertherapy raises concerns about all of the following except: A. legal obligations to pay for services B. lack of training C. quality of care D. confidentiality
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A.
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According to Freud, the ___ is the psychological force that represents a person’s conscience. A. moral compass B. conscience C. superego D. ego
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C.
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The tiny space between the nerve ending of one neuron and the dendrite of the other is the: A. receptor B. nucleus C. synapse D. transmitter
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C.
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A behavioral treatment in which clients with phobias gradually learn to react calmly instead of with intense fear of objects they dread is known as: A. self-actualization B. flooding C. systematic desensitization D. catharsis
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C.
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According to the psychodynamic model, someone who unconsciously refuses to fully participate in therapy is said to be demonstrating: A. repression B. regression C. resistance D. reaction formation
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C.
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___ therapy suggests that people have two options with their lives – to face up to our own “being” and to give meanings to our lives or to shrink and hide form the responsibility. A. Humanistic B. Existential C. Gestalt D. Client-centered
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B.
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One of the main differences between group therapy and self-help group is the presence in group therapy of: A. more than one person B. more than one therapist C. a professional therapist D. people who are related by marriage or other familial connection
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C.
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Psychotropic medications were developed in the ___, and since then have greatly changed the outlook for the number of mental disorders. Today they are used widely, either alone or with other forms of psychotherapy. A. 1930s B. 1950s C. 1970s D. 1990s
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B.
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When a 3-year-old boy climbed over a barrier at the Brookfield Zoo in Illinois in 1996 and feel into a gorilla compound, clinical theorists had a field day interpreting which of the events that took place after the boy fell? A. The gorillas all fled from the boy, as they recognized that going near him would lead to being shot with a tranquilizer dart B. The boy was severely injured as the gorillas attacked what they interpreted to be a predator C. A 160-pound gorilla picked up the boy, protected him, and carried him to rescue workers unharmed D. The gorillas in the compound all fought over who would get to “claim” the boy as their offspring, and it took weeks before the boy could safely be rescued
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C.
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According to Aaron Beck’s cognitive theory, one illogical thought process regularly found in depression is ___, the drawing of broad negative conclusions on the basis of a single insignificant event. A. dichotomous thinking B. catastrophizing C. selective abstraction D. overgeneralization
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D.
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According to the ___ model, human beings are driven to self-actualize, or to fulfill their natural potential for goodness and growth. A. humanistic B. existential C. Gestalt D. socioevolutionary
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A.
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Some research has suggested that ___ has been linked to exposure to certain viruses during childhood or before birth. A. bipolar disorder B. dissociative identity disorder C. schizophrenia D. depression
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C.
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Which of the following is not described by your text as being a part of the cerebrum? A. hypothalamus B. hippocampus C. amygdala D. corpus callosum
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A.
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Dr. Jacob supports this model which believes a full understanding of his patients’ thoughts, emotions, and behavior must also include an understanding of their biological basis. A. humanistic-existential model B. sociocultural model C. biological model D. cultural model
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C.
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The Biological Model is best rooted in: A. sociology B. philosophy C. medicine D. psychology
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C.
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Julie would have doubts of depression followed by periods of normalcy. On her last admission, she presented with increased excitability, euphoric mood, and rapid speech. She was prescribed which of the following medications? A. antipsychotics B. anxiolytics C. mood stabilizers D. antidepressants
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C.
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According to Freud, this is the psychological force that represents a person’s values and ideals. A. superego B. supraego C. id D. ego
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A.
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These psychodynamic emphasize the role of the ego and consider it a more independent and powerful force than Freud did. A. superego theorists B. self theorists C. ego theorists D. object relations theorists
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C.
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These psychodynamic theorists propose that people are motivated mainly by a need to have relationships with others. A. ego theorists B. self theorists C. object relations theorists D. superego theorists
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C.
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This model emphasizes behavior and the ways in which it is learned. A. biological model B. cognitive model C. behavioral model D. psychodynamic model
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C.
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The behavioral model began in laboratories where psychologists were running experiments on: A. conditioning B. imaging C. sleeping D. dreaming
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A.
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Jonas is afraid of elevators and begins to see a therapist who specializes in a behavioral treatment which is applied in a step-by-step procedure known as: A. systematic sensitization B. behavioral desensitization C. systematic desensitization D. classical desensitization
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C.
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This model concentrates on the thinking that underlies behavior. A. biological model B. cognitive model C. psychodynamic model D. behavioral model
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B.
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Approximately ___ percent of today’s clinical psychologists report that their approach is behavioral. A. 10 B. 30 C. 19 D. 29
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A.
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He proposed that many forms of abnormal behavior can be traced to cognitive factors. A. Jung B. Bandura C. Freud D. Beck
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D.
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This model stresses the role of values and choices. A. humanistic-existential model B. cognitive model C. sociocultural model D. behavioral model
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A.
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The humanistic and existential theories were extremely popular during the: A. 1970s and 1980s B. 1960s and 1980s C. 1950s and 1960s D. 1960s and 1970s
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D.
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This humanistic therapy involves clinicians actively moving clients toward self-recognition and self-acceptance by using techniques such as role playing and self-discovery exercises. A. Gestalt B. Renault C. Person-Centered D. Client-centered
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A.
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Family members who are grossly overinvolved in each other’s activities, thoughts, and feelings have an ___ structure. A. enmeshed B. engrossed C. entrenched D. engaged
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A.
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In ___, therapists works with two individuals who are in a long-term relationship. A. multicultural therapy B. conjoint therapy C. couples therapy D. structural partnership therapy
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C.
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This approach seeks to address the unique issues faced by members of minority groups. A. culture-sensitive therapies B. minority-sensitive therapies C. culture-blended therapies D. culture-prone therapies
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A.
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Zack was driving his 3-year-old daughter, Josie, to preschool when another driver cut him off. he immediately cursed loudly at the other driver. At school later that day, Josie became angry when another child took her toy and she used the same expletive she heard her father say earlier. This is an example of ___.
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modeling
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Jane is overweight and her health is suffering. She explains to her doctor that “food is her only happiness in life and she deserves to be happy.” Jane’s explanation is an example of: A. repression B. regression C. rationalization D. projection
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C.
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Hal is seeking help for his depression through an online service. This type of ___ has seen a growth in recent years.
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cybertherapy
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The behavioral model began in laboratories where psychologists were running experiments on: A. sleeping B. dreaming C. imaging D. conditioning
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D.
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Approximately ___ percent of today’s clinical psychologists report that their approach is cognitive. A. 25 B. 26 C. 28 D. 30
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C.
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He was one of two clinicians who proposed that cognitive processes are at the center of behaviors, thoughts, and emotions. A. Carl Rogers B. Albert Ellis C. Carl Jung D. Albert Bandura
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B.
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This is the process of learning in which two events that repeatedly occur close together in time become fused in a person’s mind and produce the same response. A. classical conditioning B. operant conditioning C. modeling D. intellectualizing
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A.
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In the ___ testing phase of a drug study, the subject helps to determine the drug’s efficacy and identify side effects.
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final
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This model looks to social and cultural forces as the keys to human functioning. A. social model B. cultural model C. humanistic-existential model D. sociocultural model
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D.
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___ involves speaking with a therapist with the aid of Skype or a webcam. A. Digital therapy B. Visual e-therapy C. Tele-therapy D. Info-therapy
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B.
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This model sees physical processes as key to human behavior. A. biological model B. cognitive model C. behavioral model D. psychodynamic model
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A.
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When a subject is participating in clinical phase III of a drug study, which of the following is taking place? A. The drug is being tested on animals. B. The subject is being asked about any unexpected long-term effects C. The subject is helping to determine the drug’s efficacy and identify side effects. D. The safety of the drug is being assessed by the subject.
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C.
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This model concentrates on the responses an organism makes to its environment. A. behavioral B. environmental C. psychodynamic D. sociocultural
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A.
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According to Freud, a child’s pleasure from nursing is reflected in the ___ part of the personality.
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id
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During ECT, two electrodes are attached to a patient’s forehead and an electrical current of ___ to ___ volts is passed briefly through the brain. A. 45 to 120 B. 55 to 140 C. 65 to 140 D. 75 to 150
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C.
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During times of stress, the adrenal glands secrete the hormone: A. norepinephrine B. dopamine C. serotonin D. cortisol
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D.
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This model stresses the role of values and choices. A. cognitive model B. behavioral model C. humanistic-existential model D. sociocultural model
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C.
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The discovery of psychotropic medications in the ___ helped to advance the fields of psychiatry and psychology. A. 1940s B. 1950s C. 1970s D. 1980s
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B.
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Every chromosome contains numerous genes, and each cell contains around ___ genes. A. 30,000 B. 50,000 C. 20,000 D. 40,000
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A.
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The three main biological treatments include all of the following EXCEPT: A. psychosurgery B. electroconvulsive therapy C. drug therapy D. psychotherapy
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D.
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He proposed that many forms of abnormal behavior can be traced to cognitive factors. A. Aaron Beck B. Carl Jung C. Sigmund Freud D. Albert Bandura
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A.
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This tiny space separates one neuron from the next. A. the axon B. the dendrite C. the synapse D. the prolapse
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C.
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Huntington’s disease, which has psychological as well as physical aspects, results from loss of cells in the cortex and the: A. corpus callosum B. basal ganglia C. hippocampus D. amygdala
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B.
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The ___ operates on the pleasure principle, while the ___ operates on the reality principle. A. ego; superego B. id; superego C. id; ego D. ego; id
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C.
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Freud believed that the three central forces that shape the personality were the: A. instincts, the ego, and the self B. biological forces, culture, and learning C. instinctual needs, rational thinking, and moral standards D. consciousness, unconsciousness, and instincts
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C.
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The proper of Freud’s developmental stages is: A. anal, phallic, latency, genital, oral B. oral, anal, latency, phallic, genital C. oral, anal, phallic, latency, genital D. phallic, latency, genital, oral, anal
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C.
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___ disease is marked by violent emotional outbursts, memory loss, suicidal thinking, involuntary body movements, and absurd beliefs.
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Huntington’s
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This model looks at people’s unconscious internal processes and conflicts. A. biological model B. cognitive model C. behavioral model D. psychodynamic model
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D.
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___ is a new cognitive therapy that helps clients to accept many of their problematic thoughts rather than judge them, act on them, or try fruitlessly to change them.
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Acceptance and Commitment Therapy
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___ Therapy helps people recognize and change their faulty thinking processes.
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Cognitive
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Serotonin, dopamine, and norepinephrine are examples of: A. axons B. neurotransmitters C. dendrites D. hormones
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B.
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When Frank’s wife was diagnosed with breast cancer, rather than deal with his feelings, he searched countless hours on the internet and in the library for the latest treatments and advances. This is an example of: A. denial B. regression C. rationalization D. intellectualization
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D.
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Angel is asked to “free associate” about his experience as a soldier in Afghanistan and he responds by changing the subject. A psychodynamic therapist would consider this an example of ___.
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resistance