Chapter 19: The Circulatory System: Heart Practice Problems

What structures are considered to be part of the cardiac conduction system?
AV node; SA node; Purkinje fibers

The portion of the cardiac conduction system located in the lower end of the interatrial septum is the ____ ____.
atrioventricular node

The amount of blood pumped by the left ventricle is ____ the amount of blood pumped by the right ventricle.
equal to

List in order the three layers of the heart wall from deep to superficial.
1. endocardium
2. myocardium
3. epicardium

The term ____ refers to relaxation of the heart.
diastole

The ______ are the lower chambers of the heart that pump blood to lungs and to the body.
ventricles

Which are the components of the cardiovascular system?
heart, arteries, veins, capillaries

Which side of the heart pumps blood to lungs?
right

The volume of blood ejected from the left ventricle multiplied by the heart rate, as measured in liters/minute is known as the ____ ____.
cardiac output

______ are short, thick, branched muscle cells of the heart.
cardiocytes

The _____ is a composite recording of all nodal and myocardial action potentials.
ECG

Place the following chambers in the correct order to best represent the flow of blood through the heart once blood has returned to the heart from SVC and IVC
1. right atrium
2. right ventricle
3. left atrium
4. left ventricle

The blunt inferior point or tip of the heart is known as the _____.
apex

Th _____ circuit of the cardiovasular system carries blood from the right ventricle to the lungs for gas exchange and returns it to the left atrium of the heart.
pulmonary

List in the correct order the major phases of the cardiac cycle following ventricular filling.
1. isovolumetric contraction
2. ventricular ejection
3. isovolumetric relaxation

The depolarization of the SA node (from threshold to peak) is due to the inflow of __ and ___ iions.
calcium; sodium

The circuit of the cardiovascular system that carries blood to the body (excluding the interior of the lungs) then returns it to the right of the heart is the ____ circulation.
systemic

The study of the heart and its disorders is known as:
cardiology

Blood vessel indicated.
Blood vessel indicated.
inferior vena cava

The _____ circuit of the cardiovascular system carries blood ot the lungs for gas exchange and returns it to the heart.
pulmonary

When a normal heart rate is established by the appropriate firing of the SA node, this is known as a _____ (cardiac) rhythm.
sinus

Identify the indicated part of the cardiac conduction system.
Identify the indicated part of the cardiac conduction system.
Purkinje fibers

The _____ side of the heart supplies blood to the systemic circuit.
left

The broad flat superior top portion of the heart is known as the ____.
base

The blood vessel indicated is the:
The blood vessel indicated is the:
aorta

List in order the events of an action potential of a ventricular cardiocyte.
1. voltage-gated Na channels open
2. influx of Na causes more Na channels to open; depolarization
3. Na channels close as membrane potential peaks at +30 mV
4. Ca enters through slow calcium channels; creates plateau
5. Ca channels close, K channels open; repolarization

Indicate which of the chemicals can cause an increase in HR.
nicotine, thyroid hormone, caffeine

Excitation in the cardiac conduction system leaves the AV node by way of the ______ bundle, also known as the bundle of His.
atrioventricular

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