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Chapter 15: Cognitive Psychotherapy and Mindfulness-Based Therapies

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ABCDE model
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In cognitive therapy, a model for understanding and recording the impact of cognitions on emotions
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Acceptance
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In acceptance and commitment therapy, allowing unpleasant thoughts, feelings, and other internal sensation to run their course without fighting against them
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Acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT)
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An increasingly popular form of psychotherapy emphasizing the acceptance rather than avoidance of an unpleasant internal psychological experience
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Activating event
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The A in the ABCDE model of cognitive therapy; the occurrence that initiates the sequence of mental events that may prompt illogical cognitions and beliefs
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All-or-nothing thinking
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In cognitive psychotherapy, a common thought distortion in which the individual irrationally evaluates everything as either wonderful or terrible, with no middle ground or “gray area”
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Automatic thoughts
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In cognitive psychotherapy, cognitions that take place instantly and without any deliberation
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Aaron Beck
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A leader in the field of cognitive psychotherapy and the developer of the concepts of the cognitive triad and common thought distortions, among others
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Judith Beck
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A leading figure in contemporary cognitive psychotherapy and the daughter of Aaron Beck
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Belief
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The B in the ABCDE model of cognitive therapy; the illogical cognition linking the activating event to the emotional consequence
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Catastrophizing
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In cognitive psychotherapy, a common thought distortion in which the individual unrealistically expects catastrophic consequences
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Cognitions
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The focus of cognitive psychotherapy, the way individuals interpret the events that happen to them and determine their resulting emotions; also known as beliefs. Interpretations, assumptions, or thoughts
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Cognitive triad
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A component of Aaron Beck’s theory of depression whereby negative thoughts about the self, the external world, and the future contribute to depression
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Common thought distortions
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In cognitive psychotherapy, particular ways in which a thought, cognition, or belief can be illogical
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Dialectical behavior therapy (DBT)
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A form of cognitive psychotherapy—and an example of an evidence-based treatment—developed by Marsha Linehan that has found to be effective in the treatment of borderline personality disorder
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Dispute
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The D in the ABCDE model of cognitive therapy; challenging the illogical belief by labeling it as a particular type of thought distortion
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Dysfunction Thought Record
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A form used in cognitive psychotherapy that organizes clients’ experiences into columns on a written page
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Effective new belief
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The E in the ABCDE model of cognitive therapy; the logical belief or cognition that replaces the original illogical belief
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Albert Ellis
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A leader in the field of cognitive psychotherapy and the developer of Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy and the ABCDE model
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Emotional consequence
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The C in the ABCDE model of cognitive therapy; the feeling that results from the illogical belief about the activating event
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Experiential avoidance
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A tendency to circumvent rather than experience unpleasant thoughts (or feelings or other internal sensations) that may contribute to a variety of forms of psychopathology
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Homework
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An important aspect of cognitive psychotherapy whereby therapists assign clients behavioral or written tasks
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Hypotheses
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In cognitive psychotherapy, according to Aaron Beck, the category of unproven theories in which thoughts, beliefs, and cognitions belong (in contrast to proven facts)
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Marsha Linehan
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The developer of dialectical behavior therapy, which has been found effective in the treatment of borderline personality disorder
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Magnification/minimization
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In cognitive psychotherapy, a common thought distortion in which the individual overemphasizes the importance of negative events and underemphasize the importance of positive events
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Mental filtering
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In cognitive psychotherapy, a common thought distortion in which the individual ignores positive events while focusing excessively on negative events
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Metacognitive therapy
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A relatively new form of cognitive therapy emphasizing thoughts about one’s own thoughts, rather than thoughts about external events, as causal factors in psychopathology
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Mind reading
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In cognitive psychotherapy, a common thought distortion in which the individual presumes to know that others are thinking critically or disapprovingly, when knowing what they think is, in fact, impossible
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Mindfulness
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A key component of many recent forms of cognitive therapy promoting full engagement with one’s own internal mental processes in a non-confrontational way
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Overgeneralization
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In cognitive psychotherapy, a common thought distortion in which the individual applies lessons learned from negative experiences more broadly than is warranted
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Personalization
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In cognitive psychotherapy, a common thought distortion in which the individual assumes excessive personal responsibility for negative events
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Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy (REBT)
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Formerly known as Rational Emotive Therapy, the form of cognitive therapy developed by Albert Ellis and incorporating the ABCDE model