Chapter 14 Assessment

Flashcard maker : Suzette Hendon
Your​ 76-year-old female patient is having trouble breathing. When you auscultate her​ lungs, you hear crackles​ (rales) and you are concerned that she may have pulmonary edema. Her oxygen saturation is​ 92%, so you place her on​ 100% oxygen via a nonrebreather mask. Her breathing gets a little easier with the oxygen. You decide to expedite transport since she is anxious about her condition.​ Later, as you are completing your​ reassessment, you see that her respirations have slowed to 8 times per minute and she is barely staying awake. What should you do​ next?
A.
Ask your partner to pull over and wait for ALS backup.
B.
Assist her with using her​ metered-dose inhaler.
C.
Begin ventilating her with a​ bag-valve mask.
D.
Shake her to keep her awake.
C
The term priapism means​ ________ and may be found in injuries of the​ ________.
A.
a persistent penile​ erection; spine
B.
abnormal​ pulsation; abdomen
C.
a painful muscle​ spasm; spine
D.
unequal​ pupils; brain
A
In which of the following patients should you check for the possibility of spinal​ injury?
A.
An unresponsive patient found in her bed with no obvious injury
B.
An unresponsive diabetic who appears to have fallen down
C.
A responsive patient with no history of injury who is complaining of a headache and neck pain
D.
All of the above
B
Mr. Green is complaining of severe difficulty breathing after being stung by a bee. His wife states he has had reactions to bee stings​ before, but not quite this severe. Which medications should you specifically ask him​ about?
A.
Antihistamines
B.
Epinephrine​ auto-injector
C.
Inhaler
D.
Nitroglycerine tablets
B
Expert clinicians may use different approaches of thinking through​ problems, but which of the following will they have in​ common?
A.
Organization of data in their head
B.
Knowledge that one strategy works for everyone
C.
Dislike of ambiguity
D.
Strong foundation of knowledge
D
You are on the scene of a patient who is the victim of an assault. The scene is safe. You find a​ 22-year-old male patient responsive to painful stimuli only. His blood pressure is​ 180/80, pulse is​ 60, respirations are​ 12, and his oxygen saturation is​ 95% on room air. How would you classify this​ patient?
A.
Unstable. The patient is hypertensive.
B.
Stable. The​ patient’s pulse,​ respirations, and oxygen saturation are within normal limits.
C.
Unstable. The patient is responsive to painful stimuli only.
D.
Stable. The patient does not have hypotension.
C
You are treating a​ 57-year-old male for chest pain. You have gathered all pertinent history of present​ illness, completed two sets of vital​ signs, talked with medical​ direction, and assisted the patient with two doses of his nitroglycerin. Determination of whether or not the nitroglycerin was effective is assessed during​ the:
A.
primary assessment.
B.
reassessment.
C.
secondary assessment.
D.
primary and secondary assessment.
B
When using the memory aid​ OPQRST, which of the following questions would help you find out about​ P?
A.
Do you have any past medical​ history?
B.
Are you having any​ pain?
C.
Does anything make the pain better or​ worse?
D.
What is your primary​ complaint?
C
What does distention refer to when describing your​ patient’s abdomen?
A.
Harder than normal
B.
Softer than normal
C.
Larger than normal
D.
Having a​ sunken-in appearance
C
You are called for a patient who reports a headache for several days. He tells you that he has started a new blood pressure medication and is finishing an antibiotic for a skin infection. During your history​ taking, you​ should:
A.
get your patient to repeat his chief complaint.
B.
write down the pertinent facts.
C.
suggest that he take some aspirin.
D.
suspect an allergic reaction.
B
Where might you find a​ patient’s medical alert identification​ jewelry?
A.
Ankle bracelet
B.
Necklace
C.
Bracelet
D.
All of the above
D
You have performed a rapid trauma assessment on a patient with multiple​ long-bone injuries. Your next assessment step should be which of the​ following?
A.
Call the ALS unit and wait to take further action.
B.
Transport the patient to the hospital and perform a detailed physical exam.
C.
Perform a detailed physical exam.
D.
Obtain baseline vital signs and past medical history.
D
You are on the scene in the bad part of town for an unresponsive​ 18-year-old type 1 diabetic patient. His mother states that he is very noncompliant with his diabetes management and goes unresponsive often due to low blood sugar. After performing the primary​ assessment, you believe that this is the most likely cause of his unresponsiveness.​ However, after taking a capillary glucose reading you are surprised to see that the​ patient’s sugar level is normal. How will you now determine the field​ impression?
A.
Continue patient care by getting a complete SAMPLE history and perform a complete secondary assessment.
B.
You cannot make a correct diagnosis in the field because you cannot perform all the necessary tests with your limited scope of practice.
C.
Recognize that the mother was lying to you. The patient is not diabetic and you now must assume that everything she told you is wrong.
D.
Recognize that the mother is probably trying to protect her son from jail. Tell her that it is critical that she tell you what drugs he actually took.
A
Your patient is a​ 15-year-old female complaining of shortness of breath. Which of the following is NOT appropriate during the focused​ exam?
A.
Listening to her breath sounds
B.
Looking at her nail beds
C.
Checking her pupils for reactivity to light
D.
Looking at the use of her neck muscles
C
You are assessing a patient that has been involved in a motor vehicle crash. Which of the following questions would be the most important to ask​ him?
A.
Have you been in a crash​ before?
B.
How much fuel is in your​ car?
C.
Why were you in such a​ hurry?
D.
How fast was the vehicle​ going?
D
You are performing a rapid trauma assessment on an unresponsive​ 30-year-old male. As you evaluate his​ head, which of the following should you check​ for?
A.
Unequal facial muscles
B.
Whether the patient can follow your finger with his eyes
C.
Crepitation
D.
Function of the cranial nerves
C
You respond to the scene of a motor vehicle crash to find a​ middle-aged man on a long spine board being cared for by first responding firefighters. He appears to be bleeding from his head and he is unconscious. You should check the car​ for:
A.
a deployed​ passenger-side air bag.
B.
personal items too valuable to leave​ on-scene.
C.
a bent steering wheel or starred windshield.
D.
insurance information or identification.
C
________ is reassessing and recording findings of the reassessment so they can be compared to earlier findings.
A.
CQI
B.
Trending
C.
Averaging
D.
Analysis
B
While performing a detailed physical exam on a patient involved in a fall from 30​ feet, the patient​ (who had previously been responding to your​ questions) stops responding. What should you do​ next?
A.
Call medical control for orders.
B.
Continue the detailed physical assessment.
C.
Start CPR.
D.
Repeat the primary assessment.
D
When assessing a​ patient’s pertinent past​ history, you should ask which of the following​ questions?
A.
Are you currently taking any​ medications?
B.
Have you been having any medical​ problems?
C.
Could you describe what​ happened?
D.
Have you ever had a reaction to a​ medication?
B
You are caring for a teenager who is having a severe allergic reaction. He has hives all over his​ stomach, is having respiratory​ distress, and is wheezing. After you administer​ oxygen, you get a set of vital signs. Medical direction has ordered you to assist with administration of his​ Epi-Pen®. You will monitor the success of your interventions during​ the:
A.
secondary assessment.
B.
primary assessment.
C.
reassessment.
D.
focused exam.
C
You are treating a​ 15-year-old boy who apparently broke his right arm when he fell while skateboarding with his friends. You have completed your primary and secondary assessment including splinting his​ arm, but you found no other injuries or problems. Which of the following is the most important step to do during the​ reassessment?
A.
Check distal circulation on his right arm.
B.
Place the patient on oxygen via nasal cannula.
C.
Recheck his pupils.
D.
Visualize his chest for bruising.
A
On which of the following patients should a reassessment be​ performed?
A.
All patients should be reassessed
B.
Patient with chest pain
C.
Patient with a gunshot wound
D.
Patient having difficulty breathing
A
Under what circumstance should a reassessment NOT be​ performed?
A.
The patient has​ life-threatening injuries.
B.
The patient does not receive a secondary assessment.
C.
Ongoing lifesaving interventions are required.
D.
The patient is being transported to a hospital close to his home.
C
Your patient is a​ 45-year-old female who complains of​ \”twisting her​ ankle\” when she slipped on a patch of ice. Which of the following is NOT​ appropriate?
A.
Providing emotional​ support, if necessary
B.
Secondary assessment
C.
Detailed physical exam
D.
Questioning about any other complaints or areas of pain
C
You have a long transport of a patient who may have sustained a spinal injury. The patient has been stable throughout your transport. During one of your​ reassessments, your patient tells you that he is losing the feeling in his feet and toes and his fingers are tingling. At this point you​ should:
A.
call medical direction for orders.
B.
spinal immobilize him.
C.
reassess him every 5 minutes.
D.
remove him from the long spine board.
C
Your patient is an​ 18-year-old female whom you believe may have had a miscarriage and is bleeding heavily. You have completed your primary and secondary assessments and now you need to reassess her to see if the bleeding has stopped. You​ should:
A.
ask her to check herself to see if she is still bleeding.
B.
take another set of vital signs to see if her blood pressure has dropped.
C.
wait and let the hospital staff reassess the bleeding.
D.
in a reassuring​ tone, explain what you need to do.
D
In which of the following circumstances is manual stabilization of the cervical spine ALWAYS​ necessary?
A.
Penetrating trauma
B.
Blunt trauma
C.
Trauma above the level of the clavicles
D.
Trauma to the lower extremities
C
A description of a​ patient’s condition that assists a clinician in further evaluation and treatment is known as which of the​ following?
A.
Red flag
B.
Critical thinking
C.
Clinical decision
D.
Diagnosis
D
What is a surgical opening in the wall of the abdomen with a plastic bag in place to collect digestive​ waste?
A.
Colostomy
B.
Gastric bypass
C.
Thoracotomy
D.
Fistula
A
When assessing a​ 14-year-old male patient that has been involved in a bicycle​ accident, you notice that he has a small amount of blood coming from his left forearm. This observation is known as which of the​ following?
A.
Symptom
B.
Clue
C.
Indication
D.
Sign
D
You are transporting a victim of domestic​ violence, a​ 25-year-old female, who was struck on the head several times with a baseball bat. On the​ scene, she was responsive to verbal stimuli and was bleeding profusely from an open head wound. During transport the patient becomes unresponsive. Which of the following should you do​ next?
A.
Secondary assessment
B.
Vital signs and SAMPLE history
C.
Detailed physical exam
D.
Primary assessment
D
You are caring for a woman who sustained a head injury as a result of a domestic dispute. You suspect she has a closed head injury since she cannot remember what happened and one of her pupils is slightly larger than the other. You have been monitoring her vital signs every 5 minutes and you see that her blood pressure is rising and her pulse is dropping. This part of the assessment is​ called:
A.
modified secondary assessment.
B.
trending.
C.
crisis management.
D.
intervention check.
B
While transporting a patient to the​ hospital, the EMT repeats his reassessment including vital signs every 15 minutes until he arrives at the emergency department. According to this​ information, which of the following BEST describes your​ patient’s current​ status?
A.
Unstable
B.
Stable
C.
Poor
D.
Not enough information was given to answer this question.
B
You are called for a​ 58-year-old male who is concerned that his blood pressure is too high. He tells you that he has had a headache and is feeling a little dizzy. You notice that his skin is flushed and feels warm to the touch. As you finish taking his vital​ signs, you​ should:
A.
write down the​ patient’s vital signs.
B.
move the patient to the ambulance for transport.
C.
assist the patient to take his blood pressure medication.
D.
begin your reassessment.
A
If a patient complains of abdominal pain localized to a specific area of the​ abdomen, which of the following techniques should be used to assess the​ abdomen?
A.
Palpate the painful area last.
B.
Do not palpate the painful area.
C.
Palpate the painful area first.
D.
Palpate the area at the beginning and end of the exam.
A
You have responded for a patient with shortness of breath. He reports that his breathing problems began this morning and have gotten worse over the last few hours. You ask if he has taken anything to help his symptoms and he tells you that he has used his inhaler several times in the last hour. The information you have just gathered can be classified​ as:
A.
results of a rapid physical exam.
B.
the history of present illness.
C.
A complete SAMPLE history.
D.
relevant past medical history.
B
You are called for an alert patient with respiratory distress. As part of your primary​ assessment, you place the patient on oxygen via nasal cannula at 2 liters per minute. You continue with the rest of your assessment including taking a set of vital signs. During your​ reassessment, you notice that the​ patient’s respiratory rate has increased to 24 times per minute and he is having increasing trouble breathing. You​ should:
A.
switch your patient to a nonrebreather mask at 15 liters per minute.
B.
assist the​ patient’s breathing with a​ bag-valve mask.
C.
call medical direction for orders to administer his inhaler.
D.
increase the flow rate of the nasal cannula to 4 liters per minute.
A
An​ EMT’s assessment differs from an assessment made in the emergency department in which​ way?
A.
The emergency physician is concerned with scene safety.
B.
An​ EMT’s focus is on life threats first.
C.
The EMT is working with more limited resources.
D.
Time is available in the emergency department to make a diagnosis.
C
Your elderly patient reports having stomach cramps for several hours. He denies any trauma and he​ hasn’t eaten for several hours. Which of the following is more important to your assessment of this​ patient?
A.
Asking him if he is able to walk
B.
Finding out if he has any chest pain
C.
Asking if he has been having regular bowel movements
D.
Determining if he has been taking his medications as prescribed
C
When checking breath sounds in a trauma​ patient, what should the EMT assess for​ first?
A.
Amount of dead space air and residual air
B.
Rate and tidal volume
C.
Wheezing and stridor
D.
Presence and equality
D
While assessing the past medical history of a​ 68-year-old male patient involved in a fall from a​ 4-foot stepladder, you use the acronym SAMPLE. What does the A refer​ to?
A.
Allergies
B.
Acuity
C.
Assessment
D.
Amputations
A
Which of the following methods should be used to have a patient rate the amount of pain he is​ having?
A.
Use the memory aid AVPU.
B.
Use the memory aid DCAP.
C.
Have the patient rate the pain on a scale of 1​ (least) to 10​ (worst).
D.
Ask the patient to state whether the pain is​ mild, moderate,​ severe, or unbearable.
C
Which of the following is false regarding the purpose of immediately documenting vital signs once they are​ obtained?
A.
You will be able to compare each set of vital signs with the previous ones to detect trends in the​ patient’s condition.
B.
Failure to record the vital signs immediately is considered falsifying the medical record.
C.
You will be able to report the vital signs accurately when contacting the receiving facility.
D.
It may be difficult to recall the vital signs accurately later on.
B
Immediately following a rapid physical exam on an unresponsive medical​ patient, which of the following should you do​ next?
A.
Check the scene for medications.
B.
Obtain baseline vital signs.
C.
Perform a focused physical exam.
D.
Find out who the​ patient’s doctor is.
B
When using the memory aid​ SAMPLE, which of the following would you do to determine​ L?
A.
​Ask, \”When was the last time you had anything to eat or​ drink?\”
B.
​Ask, \”When was the last time you took your​ medicine?\”
C.
Look at the​ patient’s pupils.
D.
Listen to the​ patient’s lung sounds.
A
You and another EMT are discussing a call he previously ran. The EMT said the patient had classic chest pain symptoms and he treated it as a possible heart​ attack, but he later found out the patient just had indigestion and was discharged 2 hours later. The EMT was concerned that his patient assessment skills were not as good as they should​ be, and that the ED physician will no longer trust his judgment. How should you respond to his​ concerns?
A.
Tell him that his misdiagnosis is a common EMT mistake caused by illusionary correlation.
B.
Tell him that his misdiagnosis is a result of confirmation bias.
C.
Tell him that his misdiagnosis is a result of anchoring.
D.
Tell him that his misdiagnosis is a result of limited information.
D
When you begin interviewing your​ patient, he tells you that he has not felt well for several​ months, ever since he had his gallbladder removed. He goes on to tell you that he cannot get his wife to schedule a​ doctor’s appointment for him and when she remembers to​ call, the office is always closed. Which of the following is the best way to​ proceed?
A.
Begin your assessment of his vital signs.
B.
Try to call his doctor to schedule an appointment.
C.
Ask him for a list of his medications.
D.
Ask him why he decided to call 911 today.
D
The ambulance is called for an assaulted patient. While transporting the patient to the​ hospital, the EMT notes the​ patient’s jugular veins are flat​ (nondistended). Which of these is most likely the cause of this​ finding?
A.
Blood collecting around the heart in the pericardial sac
B.
Closed head injury
C.
Blood loss
D.
High blood pressure
C
Which of the following techniques of physical examination must an EMT​ master?
A.
​Observation, palpation, and auscultation
B.
​Auscultation, observation, and percussion
C.
​Percussion, inspection, and palpation
D.
​Visualization, percussion, and auscultation
A
You are transporting a​ 30-year-old male who has been shot in the chest. He is suffering from a sucking chest wound and has a decreased level of consciousness. How often should you perform a​ reassessment?
A.
Every 30 minutes
B.
Every 15 minutes
C.
Every 5 minutes
D.
Every 10 minutes
C
You are transporting a patient who has had her neck slashed from side to side. You and your partner are caring for the patient while a police officer drives you to the​ hospital, which is minutes away. You are focusing all of your efforts to maintain her airway and your partner is controlling her bleeding. Which of the following will you be unlikely to​ obtain?
A.
Reassessment results
B.
Primary assessment
C.
Pulse and respiratory rates
D.
​Patient’s gender
A
Your patient has a decreased level of consciousness. There is no evidence of​ trauma, and the patient has a long list of medical problems. Of the​ following, which would most likely help the EMT determine why this patient has a decreased level of​ consciousness?
A.
Last oral intake
B.
Pulse and respiratory rate
C.
List of allergies
D.
List of medications
D
Which of the following describes skepticism about one thing causing​ another?
A.
Representativeness
B.
Confirmation bias
C.
Availability
D.
Illusory correlation
D
\”If it looks like a duck and quacks like a​ duck, it must be a ducklong dash—except when it​ isn’t\” is a way to summarize which of the​ following?
A.
Overconfidence
B.
Illusory correlation
C.
Confirmation bias
D.
Representativeness
D
You are dispatched for a patient with chest pain. Your patient tells you that she has had shortness of breath and chest pain for about 20 minutes. Which of the following will give you the best information regarding your​ patient’s chest pain​ symptoms?
A.
Do you have a history of chest​ pain?
B.
Describe how the pain feels.
C.
Have you taken your medications​ correctly?
D.
Is the pain in your chest a sharp​ pain?
B
You are alone in the back of the​ ambulance, where you are ventilating an apneic patient. Which of the following is the BEST way to manage the​ reassessment?
A.
Stay on the scene and request additional help so you will have someone to help you perform a reassessment.
B.
Continue ventilating the patient during transport and skip the reassessment.
C.
Stop ventilating the patient every 5 minutes so you can perform a reassessment.
D.
Have your partner stop the ambulance every 5 minutes to help you perform a reassessment.
B
What term describes a surgical incision in the neck that is held open by a metal or plastic tube through which a patient can breathe or be placed on a​ ventilator?
A.
Tracheostomy
B.
Cricothyrotomy
C.
Tracheopharyngeal fistula
D.
Stoma
A
Your patient was struck in the chest with a baseball bat during a bar fight. A crackling or crunching sensation that is felt when air escapes from its normal passageways and is trapped under the skin is​ called:
A.
infiltration.
B.
subcutaneous emphysema.
C.
crepitus.
D.
friction rub.
B
Which of the following situations is most likely to result in hidden or unsuspected​ injury?
A.
Collisions that occur at night
B.
Deformity of the interior compartment of the vehicle
C.
A vehicle without air bags
D.
Seat belt use by the vehicle occupants
D
As you arrive at the emergency department with an unresponsive trauma​ patient, the nurse asks for your trending assessment. Why is this information important to the​ nurse?
A.
She can evaluate whether or not the patient is improving.
B.
She can evaluate the quality of care you provided.
C.
She can determine if you understand the assessment process.
D.
She can critique your technique of taking vital signs.
A
You are responding to an unresponsive​ 65-year-old male patient. The patient has snoring​ respirations, a scalp​ laceration, and an obvious fracture of the left ankle. What is the best initial course of​ action?
A.
Bandage the scalp wound.
B.
Splint the ankle to avoid lacerating any nerves or arteries.
C.
Perform a complete primary and secondary assessment to make sure you know exactly what is wrong before treating the patient.
D.
Place an oral airway in the patient.
D
Your patient is an unresponsive​ 40-year-old woman. Which of the following should you do immediately after the primary​ assessment?
A.
Ask her husband if she has any known allergies.
B.
Perform a rapid physical exam.
C.
Take her blood pressure.
D.
Determine the​ patient’s past medical history.
B
Your patient called 911 because he was having chest pain. He states that his pain is a 7 on a​ 10-point scale. As part of your​ care, you assist him with taking his nitroglycerin per medical direction. After waiting a few minutes for the medication to take​ effect, you​ should:
A.
ask him what his pain is like now.
B.
call medical direction to administer another dose.
C.
administer another dose of nitroglycerin.
D.
lay the head of the stretcher down.
A
​________ are signs or symptoms that suggest the possibility of a particular problem that is very serious.
A.
Red flags
B.
Pertinent negatives
C.
Differentials
D.
All of the above
A
You are transporting a​ 20-year-old soccer player who injured his ankle during a match. His injury appears to be isolated and he has no significant past medical history. How frequently should you perform a reassessment on this​ patient?
A.
5 minutes
B.
15 minutes
C.
10 minutes
D.
30 minutes
B
For which of the following patients is a focused physical examination​ appropriate?
A.
A​ 19-year-old female with a history of epilepsy and who is found only responsive to painful stimuli by her roommate
B.
A​ 30-year-old male with a history of diabetes and who is found unresponsive by his son
C.
A​ 25-year-old female with a history of asthma and who is complaining of difficulty breathing
D.
A​ 70-year-old male with dementia whose caretaker called because he​ \”didn’t seem like himself​ today\”
C
In the assessment of a responsive medical​ patient, which of the following will provide you with the most important​ information?
A.
Detailed physical exam
B.
​Patient’s medical history
C.
Focused physical exam
D.
Baseline vital signs
B
During reassessment you notice that your patient is making gurgling sounds. Which of the following should you do​ immediately?
A.
Suction the airway.
B.
Increase the amount of oxygen being delivered to the patient.
C.
Assist ventilations with a​ bag-valve-mask device.
D.
Place the patient in the recovery position.
A
Your​ patient’s initial vital signs were a pulse of 120 per minute and​ weak, a blood pressure of​ 90/50 mmHg, and a respiratory rate of 24 per minute. Upon​ reassessment, you note that the patient now has a weak pulse of 100 per​ minute, a blood pressure of​ 110/60 mmHg, and a respiratory rate of 20 per minute. Which of the following can you conclude from this​ information?
A.
The patient will survive.
B.
The​ patient’s condition may be improving.
C.
The baseline vital signs were inaccurate.
D.
You can transport the patient to a lower level trauma center.
B
You are assessing a​ 21-year-old female who was assaulted by an unknown person. She is complaining of abdominal pain. As you perform a rapid assessment of her​ abdomen, you should check for all of the following except​:
A.
distention.
B.
bowel sounds.
C.
contusions.
D.
firmness.
B
Your patient is a​ 22-year-old college student complaining of abdominal pain. She is alert and​ oriented, although somewhat uncomfortable. Which of the following should be your first​ action?
A.
Perform a rapid​ head-to-toe physical examination.
B.
Ask the patient to describe the pain and find out if she has other complaints.
C.
Take the​ patient’s roommate aside and ask about the​ patient’s medical history.
D.
Palpate the​ patient’s abdomen for tenderness and guarding.
B
You are called for a patient who was discovered unconscious in his bed this morning. You immediately complete a primary assessment and determine that he is breathing and has a good pulse. What should you do​ next?
A.
Begin transport immediately.
B.
Try to locate all of his medications.
C.
Complete a rapid physical exam.
D.
Ask the family what happened.
C
The process by which an EMT forms a field diagnosis is known​ as:
A.
clinical thinking.
B.
differential thinking.
C.
critical thinking.
D.
diagnostic thinking.
C
When a patient describes how he​ feels, he is telling you which of the​ following?
A.
His symptoms
B.
His diagnosis
C.
His signs
D.
His syndrome
A
You are called for a patient who is complaining of being weak and dizzy. He reports that he does not have enough money to pay for his medications so he has not gotten them refilled. Your service has an automatic blood pressure machine and you use it to measure the​ patient’s blood pressure while you count his respirations. The blood pressure machine reports a blood pressure of​ 280/140. What should you do​ next?
A.
Take a manual blood pressure.
B.
Call immediately for ALS response.
C.
Continue with vital sign assessment.
D.
Begin transport immediately.
A
Which of the following is another term for​ trauma?
A.
Illness
B.
Medical problem
C.
Injury
D.
Suffering
C
Mrs. Butler is a​ 66-year-old woman who is complaining of chest pain. Which of the following questions would be best in helping you determine if the pain is​ radiating?
A.
Does anything make the pain better or​ worse?
B.
Are you having pain anywhere besides your​ chest?
C.
Are you having pain in your​ arm?
D.
Are you experiencing any other​ symptoms?
B
Your patient is a​ 24-year-old female who swallowed a handful of pills of unknown type. Although she was initially alert and oriented with no​ complaints, you note that she is now beginning to slur her words and is becoming progressively lethargic. What is the highest priority in dealing with this​ patient?
A.
Maintaining an open airway
B.
Finding out exactly what she took
C.
Checking the​ patient’s pupil size and reactivity to light
D.
Notifying the receiving facility of the change in mental status
A
Your patient has been hit in the arm with a baseball during practice. He is alert and​ oriented, complaining of pain to his left arm with obvious black discoloration of the skin. What type of assessment is called for in this​ situation?
A.
Area exam
B.
Focused exam
C.
Detailed physical exam
D.
Rapid trauma exam
B
Which of the following is NOT a purpose of a rapid trauma​ assessment?
A.
To assess the extent of injuries
B.
To provide a basis for care during transport
C.
To detect injuries that may become life threatening
D.
To focus care on specific injuries
D
Your patient is the​ 18-year-old male driver of a vehicle that struck a tree. He is conscious and complaining of neck pain. The passenger is obviously dead. You have performed your primary assessment. Which of the following is the next​ step?
A.
Perform a tertiary assessment.
B.
Rule out the possibility of cervical spine injury before moving the patient.
C.
Perform a rapid trauma assessment.
D.
Immobilize the patient on a long backboard and perform a detailed examination in the ambulance.
C
When assessing a patient who has been​ stabbed, which of the following information should the EMT gain​ first?
A.
Size and type of the knife
B.
Make and model of the knife
C.
The reason the patient was stabbed
D.
Owner of the knife
A
While an EMT forms a field diagnosis on the scene of an​ emergency, how do the steps differ from the traditional approach to​ diagnosis?
A.
The EMT does not have time to form a differential diagnosis and must rely on prior experience when treating a patient.
B.
Due to the limited time spent with the​ patient, the EMT must rely on a differential diagnosis.
C.
The EMT always forms a field diagnosis within the first few minutes of the call to formulate treatment as quickly as possible.
D.
The EMT must rule in or out the most serious conditions associated with the​ patient’s presentation.
D
An unconscious trauma patient should always be assumed to have which of the following types of​ injury?
A.
Cardiac
B.
Spine
C.
Abdominal
D.
Skull
B
You have a patient who is unresponsive on the floor. What is the best way to rule in or rule out trauma as a cause of the​ patient’s unresponsiveness?
A.
Check the​ patient’s blood sugar to rule out hypoglycemia.
B.
Look for bystanders and ask them if they witnessed the incident.
C.
Look for a Glasgow Coma Scale score that is less than 8.
D.
Examine the patient for signs of trauma.
B
Your patient is a​ 23-year-old male with a stab wound to the abdomen. You have bandaged the wound and are transporting the patient to a trauma center. During your​ reassessment, you note that the bandage has become soaked with blood. What should your priority be with this​ patient?
A.
Place the patient in the Trendelenburg position.
B.
Notify the receiving facility that the patient has developed arterial bleeding.
C.
Control the bleeding.
D.
Check the​ patient’s blood pressure.
C
What is the first step in the reassessment​ process?
A.
Secondary assessment
B.
Focused history and physical exam
C.
Primary assessment
D.
Vital signs
C
Your patient is a​ 14-year-old male who was run over by a tractor and is now unresponsive. During the rapid​ assessment, you should look for clear drainage coming from the​ patient’s ________ indicating a serious injury.
A.
ears
B.
rectum
C.
mouth
D.
eyes
A
You are transporting a patient whom you are treating for chest pain. You have completed all of your assessments and are writing down some of his personal information such as his address and phone number. As the patient is​ speaking, you notice that he is having increasing difficulty breathing. You​ should:
A.
immediately repeat your primary assessment.
B.
call the hospital and report the difficulty.
C.
get a quick set of vital signs.
D.
call for ALS backup.
A
The patient was a driver in a lateral impact motor vehicle collision. During the assessment of his​ chest, the EMT notes a segment of the chest wall moving in the opposite direction from the rest of the chest. Which of the following BEST describes this​ finding?
A.
Flutter segment
B.
Intercostal retractions
C.
Paradoxical movement
D.
Tension pneumothorax
C
You respond to a motor vehicle collision and find a patient with an altered mental status and angulated left​ femur; the other driver is deceased. Your closest trauma center is 45 minutes away. Which of the following would you do​ next?
A.
Apply a traction splint.
B.
Request ALS personnel.
C.
Transport the patient to a local medical clinic for evaluation by a physician.
D.
Perform a detailed physical exam.
B
What term describes a permanent surgical opening in the neck through which a patient​ breathes?
A.
Tracheostomy
B.
Cricothyrotomy
C.
Laryngectomy
D.
Stoma
D
Mr. Hughes is a​ 49-year-old man complaining of chest pain. To find out about the quality of his chest​ pain, which of the following questions is most​ appropriate?
A.
Does anything make the pain​ worse?
B.
Can you describe how the pain in your chest​ feels?
C.
On a scale of 1 to​ 10, with 10 being the​ worst, how would you rate your level of​ pain?
D.
Are you having pain anywhere besides your​ chest?
B
You are assessing a​ 76-year-old male patient that has been involved in a fall from a standing position. You have completed the scene​ size-up and primary assessment. What should you do​ next?
A.
Secondary assessment
B.
Reassessment
C.
Focused history assessment
D.
Ongoing assessment
A
What is the sound or feel of broken bones rubbing against each other​ called?
A.
Decapitation
B.
Crepitation
C.
Emesis
D.
Osteomyelitis
B
Your patient is a​ 16-year-old female who is reporting abdominal pain and nausea. She says it came on when she woke up this morning. Her mother says that her daughter has been tired and cranky lately and has not been eating well for a couple of weeks. In​ fact, every time you ask a​ question, the​ patient’s mother answers. What should you do​ next?
A.
Have your partner interview the mother in the next room.
B.
Ignore the mother and continue to try to talk to the patient.
C.
Tell the mother to leave the room.
D.
Ask the mother to please be quiet.
A
In medical​ terms, bruises are known as which of the​ following?
A.
Discoloration
B.
Contusion
C.
Blemish
D.
Abrasion
B
Which of the following is one advantage of using​ heuristics?
A.
It provides a more accurate diagnosis.
B.
It slows the process of diagnosis.
C.
It speeds up the process of diagnosis.
D.
It allows you to treat the patient during diagnosis.
C
You are on the scene of a​ 16-year-old patient in respiratory distress. The patient has a history of asthma. After placing the patient on oxygen and performing the primary and secondary​ assessments, you are confident that the patient is indeed having an asthma attack. How can you be sure your field diagnosis is​ accurate?
A.
Keep your EMT textbook with you on the ambulance and review it to confirm your diagnosis.
B.
Think of all possible causes of respiratory distress and rule them in or out as potential diagnoses based on your clinical findings.
C.
Ask your partner her​ opinion; if she also agrees that it is​ asthma, the diagnosis is correct.
D.
Constantly reassess the patient to make sure you are correct.
B
A list of potential diagnoses compiled early in the​ patient’s assessment is known as which of the​ following?
A.
Traditional diagnosis
B.
Differential diagnosis
C.
​Assessment-based diagnosis
D.
Emergency medical diagnosis
B

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