CHAPTER 14-16

1. The current average age of menarche in the U.S. is
12 yrs, 8 mo.

2. A chemical substance produced by a gland in the endocrine system and conveyed via the bloodstream to the rest of the body is called a
hormone

3. Puberty begins with a hormonal signal from the ______ to the ____.
hypothalamus; pituitary gland

4. Which of these is another name for the sex glands?
gonads

5. How does body weight affect the timing of puberty?
Excess weight correlates with earlier puberty

6. Living in a stressful environment has been found to have what effect on the onset of puberty?
It results in earlier puberty

7. Which of these is a symptom of bulima nervosa?
binging and purging at least once a week for three months

8. The relatively sudden and rapid physical growth that occurs during puberty is referred to as
growth spurt

9. Of the following, which is typically the last part of the adolescent’s body to mature?
torso

Organs or systems that are directly involved in reproduction are called
primary sex characteristics

According to the text, teenagers are likely to experience sleep deprivation as a consequence of their
phase-delay sleep-wake pattern

There is a vaccination that protects against future exposure to which STI?
chlamydia

13. Which is TRUE of project DARE?
It has been found to significantly reduce adolescent drug use.

14. Which drug, when used extensively during adolescence, inhibits growth and may result in becoming a shorter adult?
tobacco

15. What does the term “menarche” refer to?
a girl’s first menstrual period

16. The hormonal signal to begin puberty is regulated by the
adrenal gland

17. The sex glands in a female are called ______ and in a male are called ______.
vagina; the penis

18. Sexual development before age 8 is referred to as:
precocious puberty

The hormone that affects appetite, is stored in fat, and is believed to affect the onset of puberty is:
leptin

Menstruation depletes a woman’s body
iron

A person’s idea of how his or her body looks is called:
body image

Which of the following is a symptom of anorexia nervosa?
refusal to maintain body weight that is at least 85% of normal for age, sex, & height

Towards the end of adolescence, the lungs will ____ in weight and the heart will _____ in size
triple; double

Jason is going through the adolescent growth spurt. The first observable evidence will likely be
his fingers and toes lengthen

Which of the following is a primary sex characteristic?
maturation of testes

According to the Monitoring the Future study on adolescent drug use,
tobacco is the second most commonly used drug among high school seniors

Physical traits that are not directly involved in reproduction but indicate sexual maturity are referred to as
secondary sex characteristics

_____________ accounts for most cases of fatal uterine cancer.
HPV

According to research, steady drinking impairs memory and self-control by damaging the
hippocampus and frontal cortex

Which of the following attempts to decrease teen drug use appears to have been most effective?
Project DARE

Which characteristic of adolescent thought is demonstrated when a teen fails to recognize that others may not care about what they look like or how they act?
The imaginary audience

_________ involves propositions and possibilities that may or may not reflect reality
Hypothetical thinking

3. ________________ is sometimes called “top-down reasoning”, because it involves applying a general principle to a particular case. Children can’t do this, but beginning in adolescence it becomes possible.
Deductive reasoning

The describes two networks in the brain: one for intuitive and one for analytical processing.
dual process model

Thirteen-year-old Mark refuses to go to school because he has a pimple. He is convinced that everyone will make fun of him. Mark’s behavior is an example of
the imaginary audience

What-if propositions require: thought.
hypothetical

________________ is sometimes called “bottom-up reasoning” because it involves generalizing from examples. Children, who are concrete thinkers, can do this.
Inductive reasoning

“Throwing good money after bad” is a phrase often used when we put more and more money into something that really was not worth it in the first place. Which of the following best explains why we often do not choose to “cut our losses”?
sunk cost fallacy

Julie is obsessed with how others will react to her behavior and appearance. It takes her over an hour to dress in the morning as she considers what both her friends and her enemies will think of her. Julie’s behavior reflects the power of
the imaginary audience

During adolescence, psychosocial development is primarily a search to answer the question,
Who am I?

A situation in which an adolescent does not seem to know or care about his or her identity is called
identity diffusion or confusion

A person who adopts his or her parents’ values without question or analysis is said to be in
foreclosure

The development of political identity during adolescence is not as common as it once was, but our author suggests that political identity has been replaced with widespread concern with a(n) ____ identity.
religious identity

A large group of adolescents who have something in common but who are not necessarily friends is a(n)
crowd

Longitudinal research begun in 1998 found that federally funded abstinence-only sex education
decreases the number of sexual partners & increases the use of contraceptives

7. Serious depression among adolescents is
more common in females than in males

The rate of teen pregnancy is highest in
U.S

Thinking about suicide is called _________, and a failed suicide attempt is called __________.
suicidal ideation; rumination

What is Erikson’s stage of psychosocial development during adolescence?
Identity vs. role confusion

The ultimate goal in resolving the crisis of identity achievement is to
reconsider the goals & values set by parents and culture, accepting some and rejecting others

2. Erikson’s term for premature identity formation is:
foreclosure

13. Which of these might be considered a socially acceptable way for adolescents to delay identity commitment
moratorium

Mr. Sanchez gives the car keys to his son and asks, “Who are you going with to the movies and what time will you be home?” This questioning is an example of:
parental monitoring

15. What is a clique?
a group of close friends who interact regularly and exclude outsiders

16. Destructive peer support in which one person shows another how to rebel against authority or social norms is
peer pressure

Which statement regarding teen pregnancy is TRUE?
Rates of teen pregnancy are lower in European countries than in the U.S.

Research has shown that the dip in self-esteem during adolescence:
is experienced by both sexes

Based on information regarding trends in North America and Europe since 1960, which of the following would MOST likely help to reduce teen suicide?
restricting access to guns

Crime rates, including serious crimes, are highest for those who are in their
teens

Recidivism rates show that adolescent criminal behavior is most likely to be reduced by placing the teen in
therapeutic foster care