Chapter 13 – MindTap

intangibility, perishability, client-based relationships, customer contact, heterogeneity, inseparability
A charter bus company is about to launch Go-Go Bus, a low-fare inter-city bus service that will compete with BoltBus, Megabus, and other discount bus companies. You’re the new marketing director, and you’re going to help Go-Go prepare its first marketing plan for service between Washington, D.C. and New York City, with stops in cities along the route.

Your research shows that the number of U.S. passengers using discount bus services increased by 30 percent during the past year, which makes this a very attractive market opportunity. BoltBus, owned by Greyhound, carries passengers between cities on the east and west coasts. Rival Megabus serves dozens of cities across the United States. Both BoltBus and Megabus vary fares according to time of day and day of the week, according to the level of demand. In most cases, at least one seat per bus carries the super-low price of $1—if booked online.

Like your competitors, Go-Go will offer free WiFi, power outlets at every seat, comfortable reclining seats, and bus stops conveniently located in popular neighborhoods. Avoiding formal bus stations and opting for curbside check in and boarding will keep your costs low. Selling tickets directly to customers via your website or by the driver will also keep costs low and help you monitor the pace of customer buying so you can balance demand and supply. Now get ready to market Go-Go to potential passengers.

You’ve created a list of content to be posted on Go-Go’s website, with each item intended to address the marketing challenge of a particular service characteristic.

– Photos of the gleaming new bus fleet are examples of the _____ characteristic of a service product.
– Special same-day $1 ticket offer blinking or otherwise positioned to attract attention is an example of the _____ characteristic of a service product.
– Link to Facebook page where clicking to “like” gives customers access to early news of new routes, new pricing, and travel photos posted by passengers along each route is an example of the _____ characteristic of a service product.
– Live-chat availability to allow website visitors to ask questions or obtain further information is an example of the _____ characteristic of a service product.
– Link to app that will show Go-Go’s on-time performance on each route is an example of the _____ characteristic of a service product.
– A brief video that reminds customers to have their tickets ready so everyone on the bus won’t be inconvenienced by delays in leaving the bus stop is an example of the _____ characteristic of a service product.

WORD BANK:
intangibility, inseparability, perishability, heterogeneity, client-based relationships, customer contact

assurance, reliability, responsiveness, empathy, tangibles
A charter bus company is about to launch Go-Go Bus, a low-fare inter-city bus service that will compete with BoltBus, Megabus, and other discount bus companies. You’re the new marketing director, and you’re going to help Go-Go prepare its first marketing plan for service between Washington, D.C. and New York City, with stops in cities along the route.

Your research shows that the number of U.S. passengers using discount bus services increased by 30 percent during the past year, which makes this a very attractive market opportunity. BoltBus, owned by Greyhound, carries passengers between cities on the east and west coasts. Rival Megabus serves dozens of cities across the United States. Both BoltBus and Megabus vary fares according to time of day and day of the week, according to the level of demand. In most cases, at least one seat per bus carries the super-low price of $1—if booked online.

Like your competitors, Go-Go will offer free WiFi, power outlets at every seat, comfortable reclining seats, and bus stops conveniently located in popular neighborhoods. Avoiding formal bus stations and opting for curbside check in and boarding will keep your costs low. Selling tickets directly to customers via your website or by the driver will also keep costs low and help you monitor the pace of customer buying so you can balance demand and supply.

You’re thinking about service quality as you read complaints about other bus companies that were posted on your state’s transportation regulation website.

– “The bus driver didn’t seem to know where the bus stop was in several of the cities,” is concerned with the _____ dimension of service quality.
– “I reserved a ticket through the firm’s app earlier in the day. When I got to the bus stop, however, my reservation wasn’t in the automated system,” is concerned with the _____ dimension of service quality.
– “Although I called and e-mailed the company twice about my problem, nobody ever responded,” is concerned with the _____ dimension of service quality.
– “When I told the bus driver that I needed help with my luggage, he shrugged and suggested I ask a strong passenger to give me a hand,” is concerned with the _____ dimension of service quality.
– “The buses were sometimes messy and smelly,” is concerned with the _____ dimension of service quality.

WORD BANK:
tangibles, reliability, responsiveness, assurance, empathy

target public, client-based relationships, credence qualities, service qualities, services, opportunity cost
– The _____ have an interest in or concern about an organization, a product, or a social cause.
– Services-oriented businesses seek to create _____ to enhance customer loyalty.
– _____ are attributes that consumers are unable to evaluate.
– _____ is the customers’ definition of how well a service meets or exceeds their expectations.
– _____ are usually provided through the application of human or mechanical efforts directed at people or objects.
– The value of the benefit given up by selecting one alternative over another is the definition of _____.

WORD BANK:
services, credence qualities, opportunity cost, service qualities, target public, client-based relationships

expansion, intangibility, satisfied, core, supplement
– Sustained economic growth and lifestyle changes have led to the _____ of the service sector.
– A service cannot be physically possessed. This is an example of _____.
– Satisfied employees lead to _____ customers.
– A _____ service is the basic service experience or commodity a customer expects to receive.
– A _____ service is a supportive service related to the core service and is used to differentiate the service bundle from competitors’.

WORD BANK:
supplement, perishability, unsatisfied, nonprofit, intangibility, regulatory, expansion, satisfied, lifestyle main, core

promotion, pricing, product, product, distribution
– “Tangible cues are used to convey a message,” is an aspect of the _____ variable of the marketing mix.
– State and local government regulations may limit flexibility of _____.
– Intangibility is a characteristic of a _____.
– A _____ is typically offered by an organization in a package or bundle.
– Marketing channels for services are usually short and direct for the _____ variable of the marketing mix.

WORD BANK:
product, pricing, promotion, distribution

E. To enhance search qualities, create a website and include videos showing your bus routes and virtual tours of the buses in your fleet.
Your private equity firm recently purchased a company that offers bus service to and between college campuses in Connecticut and Massachusetts. You are looking for ways to increase revenues and reduce costs. Your company has a number of other service-oriented businesses in its portfolio so you are very familiar with the marketing and business challenges of providing service products.

Which of the following marketing strategies would effectively address one of the challenges associated with selling services?
A. As a supplementary service, offer additional routes and departure times on Wednesdays.
B. To deal with periods of high and low demand, offer lower-priced tickets on Tuesdays when demand is high and offer higher-priced tickets on Sundays when demand is low.
C. With perishability in mind, increase the frequency of bus scheduling during slow periods and decrease the frequency during busy periods.
D. With hopes to decrease heterogeneity, you increase the number of hours each employee serves the public.
E. To enhance search qualities, create a website and include videos showing your bus routes and virtual tours of the buses in your fleet.

D. Marketers can offer all services on a trial basis as a way of getting customers to try the services.
Select the statement that is not accurate:
A. Customization is a key element in creating a competitive advantage for the service provider.
B. Service providers are more likely to promote guarantees.
C. Marketers use demand-based pricing for time-sensitive services.
D. Marketers can offer all services on a trial basis as a way of getting customers to try the services.
E. Inseparability contributes to the challenges of demand management of service offerings.
B. Experience qualities can be judged only during purchase or consumption.
Which of the following statements is true about service quality?
A. Service quality is easy to evaluate because services have many search qualities.
B. Experience qualities can be judged only during purchase or consumption.
C. Service quality is objectively-measured and it is quantifiable.
D. Providing high-quality service consistently is easy for most organizations.
E. Consumers are more likely to tell others about a good customer service experience than a bad one.
B. Quality consistency in service delivery is difficult.
There are distinct differences in how firms provide services versus products to their customers. Services are an increasingly important segment of the U.S. economy, so it is important for marketers to understand these differences. The marketer must understand the different characteristics of services and adjust the firm’s marketing strategy accordingly.

Which of the following statements will a massage therapy business find likely to be true about the characteristics of services?
A. Service providers cannot manage the demand for their service.
B. Quality consistency in service delivery is difficult.
C. Customers rely less on brands when evaluating services.
D. Production and consumption of services is not necessarily simultaneous.
E. Customer contact is the same for all services.

B. False
You’ve just joined the marketing team for Stop the Smoke, a nonprofit group that seeks to prevent teenagers from taking up cigarette smoking. All your previous professional experience in marketing has been in for-profit organizations so you will need to adjust your perspectives in a number of ways in this new role. Determine whether the following statement is true or false with regard to nonprofit services:

Pricing of nonprofit services is very similar to pricing for for-profit services.
A. True
B. False

B. False
You’ve just joined the marketing team for Stop the Smoke, a nonprofit group that seeks to prevent teenagers from taking up cigarette smoking. All your previous professional experience in marketing has been in for-profit organizations so you will need to adjust your perspectives in a number of ways in this new role. Determine whether the following statement is true or false with regard to nonprofit services:

Both nonprofit and for-profit organizations’ main objective is to increase shareholder value.
A. True
B. False

B. False
You’ve just joined the marketing team for Stop the Smoke, a nonprofit group that seeks to prevent teenagers from taking up cigarette smoking. All your previous professional experience in marketing has been in for-profit organizations so you will need to adjust your perspectives in a number of ways in this new role. Determine whether the following statement is true or false with regard to nonprofit services:

Both nonprofit and for-profit organizations engage in marketing activities to increase market share.
A. True
B. False

A. True
You’ve just joined the marketing team for Stop the Smoke, a nonprofit group that seeks to prevent teenagers from taking up cigarette smoking. All your previous professional experience in marketing has been in for-profit organizations so you will need to adjust your perspectives in a number of ways in this new role. Determine whether the following statement is true or false with regard to nonprofit services:

Nonprofit organizations typically market ideas rather than goods and services.
A. True
B. False

A. True
You’ve just joined the marketing team for Stop the Smoke, a nonprofit group that seeks to prevent teenagers from taking up cigarette smoking. All your previous professional experience in marketing has been in for-profit organizations so you will need to adjust your perspectives in a number of ways in this new role. Determine whether the following statement is true or false with regard to nonprofit services:

The nonprofit organization’s target market is the client public.
A. True
B. False

customer contact, intangibility, perishability, heterogeneity, inseparability
You are a marketing consultant who specializes in assisting services-based companies develop strategies and tactics for dealing with the unique characteristics inherent in selling services versus goods.

– Because of aspects of _____ service organizations must train employees to perform customer-oriented behavior and reward them for success.
– There is no tactic or strategy that will influence this characteristic. You can’t make it possible for a service to be seen, touched, or smelled because of the _____ of services.
– There is no tactic or strategy that will allow the firm to recover unused services capacity occurs due to the _____ of services.
– Because of _____ employee training should educate employees in ways that will help them provide quality service consistently to customers.
– Employees should be trained to understand _____ because customers not only want a specific type of service but expect it to be provided in a specific way by a specific individual.

WORD BANK:
customer contact, intangibility, perishability, heterogeneity, inseparability

product, distribution, pricing, promotion
You are the head of marketing for a services-based company, and you are very adept at adjusting the traditional marketing mix strategies to fit the services your company offers.

– A service offered by an organization that is generally a package, or bundle, of services consisting of a core service and one or more supplementary services are characteristics of a _____.
– _____ could involve making delivery more accessible to customers and to increase the supply of a service as well as to reduce labor costs, service providers should decrease the use of contact personnel and replace them with equipment and technology where possible.
– Services offered to customers in bundles give marketers the flexibility to offer the services at one price, separately priced, or to use a combination of the methods, these are all aspects of _____.
– _____ may include adding tangibility; ads for services often show pictures of facilities, equipment, and service personnel.

WORD BANK:
product, pricing, distribution, promotion

service expectations, past experiences, word-of-mouth, customers, advertising
You recently authored a best-selling book on service quality. The success of the book has made you a highly sought-after speaker on the subject. The National Association of Marketing Professionals asked you to give a presentation on the subject at its annual conference. You decide to give a presentation titled, “Influencing Customer Judgments about Service Quality.” You will emphasize the following key points in your presentation.

– One of the most important factors in customer judgements of service quality is _____.
– _____ with the service heavily influences what the customer expects regarding the firm’s customer service.
– Customers are also significantly influenced by _____ communications from friends and associates.
– Comments and opinions expressed by the firm’s _____ can influence consumers’ expectations about the firm’s customer service.
– The company’s own _____ can influence customers’ perceptions of the firm’s customer service.

WORD BANK:
advertising, guarantees, service expectations, customer service surveys, past experiences, customers, word-of-mouth, competition, marketing mix, service ratings

heterogeneity, perishability, inseparability, intangibility, inseparability
– Bob is always complaining that his barber does not cut his hair the same way consistently. Bob’s barber exhibits service _____.
– You did not have many customers today at your car wash. Unfortunately, you cannot save those missed car washes for another day because of their _____.
– A haircut gets consumed as it is being produced. This is because of its _____.
– Mary cannot smell the eye exam she just received because of its _____.
– Delores goes to the same massage parlor every month, and she wants the same masseuse to do her massage every time. This is an example of service _____.

WORD BANK:
inseparability, intangibility, perishability, heterogeneity

core service, supplementary service, heterogeneity, intangibility, inventory management
– A basic service experience expected by a customer is a(n) _____.
– Marketers will use a(n) _____ as a supportive service related to a core service in order to differentiate the service bundle from competitors.
– _____ makes it difficult to standardize service delivery.
– Service marketers are compelled to make promises to customers because of _____.
– _____ is very important to service providers

WORD BANK:
intangibility, perishability, inseparability, supplementary service, transportation, package, core service, heterogeneity, warehousing, inventory management

Zone of tolerance, Search qualities, Credence qualities, Word-of-mouth communication, Service quality
– _____ is the difference between desired service and acceptable service in the mind of the customer.
– _____ are tangible attributes like color, style, and size.
– _____ are attributes that customers may be unable to evaluate even after the purchase and consumption of the service.
– _____ relates to customers’ tendency to tell others about a bad experience with a service more readily than about a good experience with a service.
– _____ is the customer’s perception of how well a service met her expectations.

WORD BANK
service quality, search qualities, credence qualities, zone of tolerance, word-of-mouth communication

E. Perishability means that the unused service capacity from one time period cannot be stored for future use.
You decided to start a dog walking service in Tiburon, California because you noticed a number of trends that suggest a high demand for this type of service. You are trying to convince your brother to partner with you in this business, but he is unconvinced of its prospects. He believes your chances of success would be greater with a goods-based business.

You have gathered some evidence to show your brother in hopes of convincing him that your idea has validity. Select the statement that does not support starting a services-based business as opposed to a goods-based business:
A. Sustained economic growth and lifestyle changes have led to the expansion of the service sector, including consumer and business services, as people can afford to pay others to perform tasks that save them time.
B. Services are increasingly important in many nations, and the importance of services in the U.S. economy has led many people to call the United States the world’s first service economy. Services represent well over half of the GDP in many developed nations.
C. A concentrated effort to provide quality services builds a relationship in which customers become very loyal and are unlikely to switch to a competitor.
D. Demand for consumer services has grown more rapidly than for business services.
E. Perishability means that the unused service capacity from one time period cannot be stored for future use.

A. Business services are in greater demand than consumer services. See “13-1 The Growth and Importance of Services” from chapter 13 for more information.
Select the statement that is true regarding services marketing.
A. Business services are in greater demand than consumer services. See “13-1 The Growth and Importance of Services” from chapter 13 for more information.
B. Services are dominated by the tangible portion of the total product; whereas, goods are dominated by the intangible portion. See “13-1 The Growth and Importance of Services” from chapter 13 for more information.
C. Services have more factors for the customer to evaluate. So, she is able to make a more informed purchase decision. See “13-1 The Growth and Importance of Services” from chapter 13 for more information.
D. The customer can touch, taste or smell a service product. See “13-1 The Growth and Importance of Services” from chapter 13 for more information.
E. Services represent a small part of the total U.S. economy. See “13-1 The Growth and Importance of Services” from chapter 13 for more information.
E. A nonprofit organization seeks to obtain a desired response from those individuals and entities that it communicates its message to.
Select the statement that is true regarding nonprofit marketing.
A. For the nonprofit organization, the client public and the general public are the same.
B. The target public is the group of individuals who oppose the nonprofit’s message, and is the target of the nonprofit’s attempt to change attitudes.
C. Nonprofits are not primarily providers of services instead of goods.
D. Because of its altruistic nature, nonprofit marketing is non-controversial.
E. A nonprofit organization seeks to obtain a desired response from those individuals and entities that it communicates its message to.
A. True
You are the head of marketing for a well-known, national nonprofit organization. The organization has recently hired a new executive director whose previous professional experiences were exclusively in for-profit organizations. You are meeting with the new executive director to review the marketing mix strategy for the organization. The executive director tells you about the marketing mix strategy successes of his previous for-profit organizations. He believes the same successes can be achieved in this nonprofit environment because marketing mix strategies are the same regardless of whether the organization is for-profit or nonprofit. You respectfully disagree with his assertion. You decide to put together a short PowerPoint presentation that delineates the differences in marketing mix variables between the two types of organizations.

Is the following statement true or false with regard to describing how marketing mix variables are different in nonprofit organizations compared to for-profit organizations?

Nonprofit organizations usually deal more with ideas and services than with goods. The marketing of ideas and concepts is more abstract and much effort is required to present benefits.
A. True
B. False

A. True
You are the head of marketing for a well-known, national nonprofit organization. The organization has recently hired a new executive director whose previous professional experiences were exclusively in for-profit organizations. You are meeting with the new executive director to review the marketing mix strategy for the organization. The executive director tells you about the marketing mix strategy successes of his previous for-profit organizations. He believes the same successes can be achieved in this nonprofit environment because marketing mix strategies are the same regardless of whether the organization is for-profit or nonprofit. You respectfully disagree with his assertion. You decide to put together a short PowerPoint presentation that delineates the differences in marketing mix variables between the two types of organizations.

Is the following statement true or false with regard to describing how marketing mix variables are different in nonprofit organizations compared to for-profit organizations?

The financial price, or an exact dollar amount, may or may not be charged for a nonprofit product.
A. True
B. False

A. True
You are the head of marketing for a well-known, national nonprofit organization. The organization has recently hired a new executive director whose previous professional experiences were exclusively in for-profit organizations. You are meeting with the new executive director to review the marketing mix strategy for the organization. The executive director tells you about the marketing mix strategy successes of his previous for-profit organizations. He believes the same successes can be achieved in this nonprofit environment because marketing mix strategies are the same regardless of whether the organization is for-profit or nonprofit. You respectfully disagree with his assertion. You decide to put together a short PowerPoint presentation that delineates the differences in marketing mix variables between the two types of organizations.

Is the following statement true or false with regard to describing how marketing mix variables are different in nonprofit organizations compared to for-profit organizations?

Distribution decisions in nonprofits relate to how ideas and services will be made available to clients.
A. True
B. False

B. False
You are the head of marketing for a well-known, national nonprofit organization. The organization has recently hired a new executive director whose previous professional experiences were exclusively in for-profit organizations. You are meeting with the new executive director to review the marketing mix strategy for the organization. The executive director tells you about the marketing mix strategy successes of his previous for-profit organizations. He believes the same successes can be achieved in this nonprofit environment because marketing mix strategies are the same regardless of whether the organization is for-profit or nonprofit. You respectfully disagree with his assertion. You decide to put together a short PowerPoint presentation that delineates the differences in marketing mix variables between the two types of organizations.

Is the following statement true or false with regard to describing how marketing mix variables are different in nonprofit organizations compared to for-profit organizations?

Nonprofits do not use advertising or other promotional activities to raise funds for their organizations.
A. True
B. False

B. False
You are the head of marketing for a well-known, national nonprofit organization. The organization has recently hired a new executive director whose previous professional experiences were exclusively in for-profit organizations. You are meeting with the new executive director to review the marketing mix strategy for the organization. The executive director tells you about the marketing mix strategy successes of his previous for-profit organizations. He believes the same successes can be achieved in this nonprofit environment because marketing mix strategies are the same regardless of whether the organization is for-profit or nonprofit. You respectfully disagree with his assertion. You decide to put together a short PowerPoint presentation that delineates the differences in marketing mix variables between the two types of organizations.

Is the following statement true or false with regard to describing how marketing mix variables are different in nonprofit organizations compared to for-profit organizations?

Nonprofits do not use social media as extensively as for-profits.
A. True
B. False

A. Services are dominated by the intangible portion of the total product.
Which of the following statements is true regarding services?
A. Services are dominated by the intangible portion of the total product.
B. Services do not involve the use of mechanical efforts directed at people.
C. Services if unused can be stored for future use.
D. Services offered by businesses have grown due to decreasing complexity of the business environment.
E. Services can be physically possessed.
C. intangible
Services are said to be _____ as they are not physical and therefore cannot be perceived by the senses.
A. heterogeneous
B. inseparable
C. intangible
D. perishable
E. definite
A. Education
Which of the following can be regarded as a service-dominant product according to the tangibility continuum?
A. Education
B. Fast food
C. Custom-made clothing
D. Automobiles
E. Rice
D. Inseparability
Which of the following characteristics of a service implies a shared responsibility between a customer and service provider due to its quality of being produced and consumed at the same time?
A. Perishability
B. Heterogeneity
C. Connectivity
D. Inseparability
E. Tangibility
D. Perishability
Services are characterized by _____ in that the unused service capacity of one time period cannot be stored for future use.
A. Inseparability
B. Flexibility
C. Intangibility
D. Perishability
E. Heterogeneity
D. Perishability
Hotel rooms that remain vacant on a particular day cannot be stored and sold to customers at a later date. Which of the following characteristics of services is affecting the business of the service marketer in the above scenario?
A. Separability
B. Tangibility
C. Homogeneity
D. Perishability
E. Flexibility
E. heterogeneity
Services delivered by people are susceptible to _____, or variation in quality.
A. inseparability
B. perishability
C. pliability
D. intangibility
E. heterogeneity
B. variations in quality.
As a service characteristic, heterogeneity refers to:
A. standardization of results.
B. variations in quality.
C. operational efficiency.
D. the degree of interaction.
E. fluctuations in cost.
D. customer contact
The level of interaction between a service provider and a customer needed to deliver a service is referred to as:
A. service optimization.
B. client-based relationship.
C. consistency of quality
D. customer contact
E. tangibility continuum
E. Difficulty in setting and justifying prices
Which of the following is a marketing challenge posed to service marketers by virtue of the intangibility of services?
A. Inability to lower costs without reducing customer satisfaction
B. Difficulty in standardizing service delivery
C. Inability to retain unused capacity
D. Difficulty in distribution of services
E. Difficulty in setting and justifying prices
E. core service
A(n) _____ is the basic service experience or commodity that a customer expects to receive.
A. auxiliary service
B. supplementary service
C. peripheral service
D. augmented service
E. core service
C. supplementary service
A(n) _____ is used to differentiate the service bundle of a firm from those of its competitors.
A. tangible service
B. core service
C. supplementary service
D. imperishable service
E. homogeneous service
A. Service marketers are less concerned with warehousing and transportation than are goods marketers.
Which of the following observations is true of the distribution of services?
A. Service marketers are less concerned with warehousing and transportation than are goods marketers.
B. Marketing channels for services are longer and less direct than those for goods.
C. Almost all services are delivered at providers’ facilities to customers.
D. All service providers use intermediaries in their marketing channels.
E. Service marketers are less concerned about inventory management, especially balancing supply and demand for services.
D. tangible cues
Promotion of a service typically includes _____ that symbolize the service.
A. business blueprints
B. aesthetic modifications
C. product designs
D. tangible cues
E. prototypes
E. search qualities
The tangible attributes that can be judged before the purchase of a product are called _____.
A. credence qualities
B. perishable qualities
C. experience qualities
D. variant qualities
E. search qualities
B. Experience qualities
_____ are attributes such as taste, satisfaction, or pleasure that can be assessed only during the purchase and consumption of a service.
A. Search qualities
B. Experience qualities
C. Variant qualities
D. Tangible qualities
E. Credence qualities
A. Credence qualities
_____ are attributes that customers may be unable to evaluate even after the purchase and consumption of a service.
A. Credence qualities
B. Search qualities
C. Experience qualities
D. Tangible qualities
E. Variant qualities
C. responsiveness
The dimension of service quality characterized by the willingness or readiness of employees to provide a service is referred to as _____.
A. reliability
B. empathy
C. responsiveness
D. assurance
E. tangibles
A. Tangibles
Which of the following is often the only aspect of a service that can be viewed by consumers before purchase and consumption?
A. Tangibles
B. Responsiveness
C. Assurance
D. Empathy
E. Reliability
D. tangible
For a service professional, a neat and clean uniform or clothing will enhance the _____ dimension of service quality.
A. assurance
B. empathy
C. responsiveness
D. tangible
E. reliability
A. zone of tolerance.
The difference between the desired and accepted levels of customer expectations is called a customer’s:
A. zone of tolerance.
B. cognitive dissonance.
C. opportunity cost.
D. service value.
E. tangibility continuum.
A. involves the use of marketing concepts to promote social causes.
Nonprofit marketing differs from for-profit marketing as nonprofit marketing:
A. involves the use of marketing concepts to promote social causes.
B. involves marketing techniques that focus on increasing market share.
C. is less controversial than for-profit marketing.
D. provides fewer opportunities for creativity than for-profit marketing.
E. is conducted to achieve higher return on investment.
A. It provides higher opportunities for creativity than for-profit marketing.
Which of the following is true of nonprofit marketing?
A. It provides higher opportunities for creativity than for-profit marketing.
B. It is usually less controversial than for-profit marketing.
C. It is conducted to achieve higher return on investment.
D. It involves marketing techniques that focus on maximizing returns for shareholders.
E. It involves the use of marketing concepts to endorse brands.
C. client publics
In nonprofit marketing, direct consumers of a product are called _____.
A. target publics
B. market publics
C. client publics
D. general publics
E. vendor publics
B. value of the benefit given up by selecting one alternative over another.
In the service industry, opportunity cost refers to the:
A. value of the investment already made that is relevant to decision making.
B. value of the benefit given up by selecting one alternative over another.
C. cost of switching from one service to another.
D. cost incurred in deciding on a course of action.
E. value of the investment already made, or sunk, that is irrelevant to decision making.

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