Chapter 12: Solid and Liquid (Hazardous) Waste

Flashcard maker : Martha Hill
1. The growing solid waste problem is characterized by:
a. Increasing amounts of MSW
b. Increasing costs of tipping fees
c. Filling up and closing landfills in some areas of the U.S.
d. More garbage produced by developing countries
e. All of the above
All of the above
The most favored method for waste management is:
a. Source reduction
b. Recycling
c. Offsite composting
d. Waste combustion
e. Landfilling
Source reduction
Source reduction involves the following activities:
a. Production of new bottles from used bottles
b. Offsite composting
c. Less wasteful package designs
d. Reprocessing of aluminum cans
e. All of the above
c. Less wasteful package designs
The advantages of recycling include:
a. Reduces greenhouse gas emissions
b. Prevents water pollution
c. Preserves raw materials
d. Decreases burden on landfills
e. All of the above
All of the above
Which of the following is inappropriate for composting?
a. Fats, oils, grease
b. Fruit and vegetable scraps
c. Yard clippings
d. Coffee grounds
e. Wool and cotton rags
Fats, oils, grease
The term ‘recycling’ usually applies to all the following except:
a. Discarding materials in landfills
b. Resale of unwanted items
c. Reuse of items in their original form onsite
d. Reuse of materials in a new form
e. None of the above
a. Discarding materials in landfills
The most frequently recycled materials is:
a. Paper
b. Landscaping materials
c. Beverage containers
d. Used automobile batteries
e. None of the above
Used automobile batteries
Hazards associated with sanitary landfill operations include:
a. Spreading of disease by scavenging animals
b. Leaching of nutrients into adjacent waterways
c. Air pollution
d. Release of VOCs
e. All of the above
All of the above
Paper contributes the following percentage (approximate) of the total municipal solid waste stream:
a. 8-10%
b. 30-40%
c. 40-50%
d. 75%
e. 3%
b. 30-40%
Which of the following statements about incineration is untrue?
a. High temperatures deactivate pathogens.
b. Air pollution can be reduced by the use of scrubbers.
c. Usually no attempt is made to sort the trash.
d. Combustion removes all carcinogens and heavy metals.
e. None of the above
Combustion removes all carcinogens and heavy metals.
A product (that could be used as a fuel) of anaerobic decomposition of garbage in a landfill is:
a. Sulfur-free oil
b. Carbon monoxide
c. Methane
d. VOCs
e. None of the above
Methane
The greatest danger of medical waste is to:
a. Those who are occupationally exposed onsite
b. The general population
c. Residents near landfills
d. Personnel who work at disposal sites
e. None of the above
Those who are occupationally exposed onsite
The primary stage of sewage processing involves:
a. Settlement of suspended solids
b. Reduction of nitrates and phosphates
c. Screening of large solids
d. Bacterial breakdown of sewage
e. Disinfection with chlorine
Settlement of suspended solids
Septic systems can be hazardous because:
a. They cannot decontaminate microorganisms present in human waste.
b. They become clogged frequently and back up into the house.
c. They attract disease vectors such as burrowing rodents.
d. They usually fail after a period of 20 to 30 years, polluting groundwater.
e. All of the above
They usually fail after a period of 20 to 30 years, polluting groundwater.
15. The Love Canal site:
a. Was a notorious toxic waste site in New York State
b. Led to the creation of the Superfund
c. Was repopulated in the 1990s
d. Generated concerns about the health of residents who lived in the area
e. All of the above
e. All of the above
The term hazardous waste denotes:
a. Materials that are perceived to be of negative value
b. By-products of society that can pose a hazard to human health
c. Introduction into the natural environment by humans of potentially harmful substances, materials, or energy
d. Items that people discard such as yard trimmings, plastics, and glass
e. Water that collects contaminants as it trickles through wastes
By-products of society that can pose a hazard to human health
The term garbage denotes:
a. Materials that are perceived to be of negative value
b. By-products of society that can pose a hazard to human health
c. Introduction into the natural environment by humans of potentially harmful substances, materials, or energy
d. Items that people discard such as yard trimmings, plastics, and glass
e. Water that collects contaminants as it trickles through wastes
The term leachate denotes:
a. Materials that are perceived to be of negative value
b. By-products of society that can pose a hazard to human health
c. Introduction into the natural environment by humans of potentially harmful substances, materials, or energy
d. Items that people discard such as yard trimmings, plastics, and glass
e. Water that collects contaminants as it trickles through wastes
Water that collects contaminants as it trickles through wastes
The term waste denotes:
a. Materials that are perceived to be of negative value
b. By-products of society that can pose a hazard to human health
c. Introduction into the natural environment by humans of potentially harmful substances, materials, or energy
d. Items that people discard such as yard trimmings, plastics, and glass
e. Water that collects contaminants as it trickles through wastes
a. Materials that are perceived to be of negative value
The term pollution denotes:
a. Materials that are perceived to be of negative value
b. By-products of society that can pose a hazard to human health
c. Introduction into the natural environment by humans of potentially harmful substances, materials, or energy
d. Items that people discard such as yard trimmings, plastics, and glass
e. Water that collects contaminants as it trickles through wastes
Introduction into the natural environment by humans of potentially harmful substances, materials, or energy
What major federal regulation governs solid waste?
a. CWA
b. RCRA
c. SDWA
d. NPL
e. CAA
b. RCRA
Which of the following categories of wastes are not subject to regulation as RCRA hazardous wastes?
a. toxic
b. radioactive
c. ignitable
d. explosive
e. corrosive
. radioactive
Approximately what percentage of municipal refuse in the U.S. is currently being recycled or composted?
a. 7%
b. 19%
c. 27%
d. 34%
e. 46%
d. 34%
What is the National Priority List (NPL)?
a. a numerical ranking of preferred waste management options, from the most desirable to the least desirable
b. a list indicating which states generate the largest amounts of hazardous waste each year
c. names of abandoned hazardous waste sites considered dangerous enough to qualify them for federal cleanup funds
d. a listing of industries which should receive the most attention by regulators because of the amount and toxicity of wastes they generate
e. an annual ranking of the most serious chemical spills/accidents which occur during the year
names of abandoned hazardous waste sites considered dangerous enough to qualify them for federal cleanup funds
Of the various environmental health and safety problems caused by poor hazardous waste management, which of the following is the most common?
a. fire and explosions
b. direct poisoning of humans
c. biomagnification of poisons through the food chain
d. airborne toxic releases
e. groundwater contamination
e. groundwater contamination
The EPA and many state governments have ranked the various options for municipal solid waste management in order of priority. Which method does EPA regard as the most desirable?
a. sanitary landfilling
b. waste-to-energy incineration
c. incineration without energy recovery
d. waste reduction at the source
e. resource recovery
resource recovery
What constitutes the single largest portion, by weight, of all municipal wastes in the U. S. today?
a. yard trimmings
b. paper
c. metals
d. glass
e. food wastes
b. paper
The superfund is The Superfund was provided for by which of the following acts:
a. FIRFA
b. TSCA
c. RCRA
d. CERCLA
e. HSWA
CERCLA
Which industry constitutes the largest single source of hazardous wastes in the U.S. today?
a. electroplating
b. agriculture
c. primary metals
d. petroleum refining
e. chemical manufacturing
chemical manufacturing
Which of the following is an example of a waste reduction method?
a. discontinuing use of disposable items, substituting reusable products for throwaways
b. reprocessing wastes to recover the original raw material
c. taking a waste material and using it to produce something else
d. burning organic wastes to generate electricity or process steam
e. converting solid wastes into liquid or gaseous fuels by pyrolysis
discontinuing use of disposable items, substituting reusable products for throwaways
EPA’s \”Brownfields\” program is intended to:
a. identify plant species capable of cleaning up chemically contaminated waste sites
b. provide funding and regulatory relief to potential buyers of chemically contaminated abandoned properties
c. find and clean up abandoned open dumps and hazardous waste sites
d. remediate soil contamination caused by leaking underground storage tanks
e. encourage the use of municipal compost for improving lands subject to erosion
provide funding and regulatory relief to potential buyers of chemically contaminated abandoned properties

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