Chapter 12: Earthquakes Study Guide

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seismogram
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A tracing of earthquake motion that is recorded by a seismograph.
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seismograph
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A device (instrument) that records ground movements caused by seismic waves as they move through Earth
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Richter Scale
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a magnitude scale that measures ground motion
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elastic rebound
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the sudden
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body wave
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a seismic wave that travels through the body of a medium
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moment magnitude
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a magnitude scale based on the size of the fault area that moves, how far fault blocks move, and the rigidity of rocks
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surface wave
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a seismic wave that travels along the surface of a medium
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modified Mercalli scale
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a scale that measures earthquake intensity
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P wave
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Primary wave: the fastest seismic wave, can travel through solids, liquids and gases, the first wave seismographs pick up
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S wave
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Secondary wave: second fastest wave,can only travel through solids
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Tsunami’s can be caused by
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volcanic eruptions, undersea landslides and undersea earthquakes
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Tsunami’s are not caused by
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tornados
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This is what you should do if you are indoors (with no reasonable exit) during an earthquake
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crouch under a desk
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Focus
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this is the location of the first motion of an earthquake (also known as the hypocenter)
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foreshock
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a small earthquake
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Epicenter
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the point on Earth’s surface directly above the earthquake’s focus
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What may happen to a building during an earthquake
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it may sway or collapse
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How do scientists find the epicenter of an earthquake
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by comparing the arrival times of P waves and S waves at several seismograph stations
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This is how to succeed
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study, ask questions, be responsible and complete your tasks
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What do we study to help forecast earthquakes?
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seismic gaps, foreshocks, rock changes
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Why do earthquakes usually occur at plate boundaries?
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Rock in environments near tectonic plate boundaries experience great stress.
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What is the epicenter of an earthquake?
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the point on Earth’s surface directly above the earthquake’s focus

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