Chapter 12 APES: Food, Soil, and Pest Management

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Every person in a given area that has daily access to enough nutritious food to have an active and healthy life
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Food security
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Living with chronic hunger and poor nutrition, which threatens their ability to lead healthy and productive lives
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Food insecurity
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Root cause of food insecurity
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Poverty
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(Hunger) People who cannot grow or buy enough food to meet their basic energy needs
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Chronic undernutrition
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Deficiencies of protein and other key nutrients–which weakens them, makes them more susceptible to disease, and hinders the normal physical and mental development of children
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Chronic malnutrition
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Occurs when there is a severe shortage of food in an area accompanied by mass starvation, many deaths, economic chaos, and social disruption
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Famine
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Occurs when food energy intake exceeds energy use and causes body fat. Too many calories, too little exercise, or both can cause overnutrition
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Overnutrition
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Three most important types of grain
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Wheat, rice, corn
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Uses heavy equipment and large amounts of financial capital, fossil fuel, water, commercial fertilizers, and pesticides to produce single crops
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Industrialized agriculture / high-input agriculture
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single crop
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Monoculture
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Form of industrialized agriculture used primarily in tropical developing countries; producing cash crops for export
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Plantation agriculture
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Method whereby plants are grown with their roots in troughs of water inside a greenhouse
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Hydroponics
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Uses mostly human labor and draft animals to produce only enough crops for a farm family’s survival, with little left over to sell or store as a reserve in hard times
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Traditional subsistence agriculture
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Farmers increase their inputs of human and draft-animal labor, fertilizer, and water to obtain higher crop yields
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Traditional intensive agriculture
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Grow several crops on same plot simultaneously
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polyculture
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Involves burning and clearing small plots in tropical forests, growing a variety of crops for a few years until soil is depleted of nutrients, then shifting to other plots
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slash-and-burn agriculture
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Order of soil layers (surface down to bottom) __ Horizon: __(thing contained in layer)____
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O Horizon: Leaf litter A Horizon: Topsoil B Horizon: Subsoil C Horizon: Parent Material
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About 88% of increase in global food production has come from using high-input industrialized agriculture to increase yields
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Green Revolution
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Concentration of particular aquatic species suitable for commercial harvesting in a given ocean of inland body of water
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Fishery
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Raising marine and freshwater fish in ponds and underwater cages
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Aquaculture
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Movement of soil components, especially surface litter and topsoil, from one place to another by actions of wind and water
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Soil erosion
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Occurs when productive potential of soil, especially on aid or semiarid land, falls by 10% or more because of combination of prolonged drought and human activities that reduce or degrade topsoil
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Desertification
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Repeated annual applications of irrigation water in dry climates lead to gradual accumulation of salts in upper soil layers (soil degradation process called…)
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Salinization
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Water accumulates underground and gradually raises the water table
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Waterlogging
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Any species that interferes with human welfare by competing with us for food, invading lawns and gardens, destroying building materials, spreading disease, invading ecosystems, or simply being a nuisance
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Pest
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Chemicals used to kill to control populations or organisms that humans consider undesirable
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Pesticides
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Each crop and its pests are evaluated as parts of an ecological system. Then farmers develop control program that uses combination of cultivation, biological controls, and chemical tools and techniques, applied in carefully coordinated way.
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Integrated Pest Management
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Using variety of ways to reduce soil erosion and restore soil fertility, mostly by keeping soil covered with vegetation
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Soil conservation
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Organic, material such as animal manure, green manure, and compost, applied to cropland as source of plant nutrients
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Organic fertilizer
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Consists of freshly cut or growing green vegetation that is plowed into the topsoil to increase organic matter and humus available to next crop
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Green Manure
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Produced when microorganisms in soil break down organic matter such as leaves, crop residues, food wastes, paper, and wood in presence of oxygen
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Compost
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Crops are grown with little or no use of synthetic pesticides, synthetic fertilizers, or genetically engineered seeds
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Organic Agriculture
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Combined use of biological, chemical, and cultivation methods to reduce crop damage to an economically tolerable level
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integrated pest management (IPM)
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3 systems that produce most of the world’s food
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croplands; rangelands, pastures, feedlots; aquaculture
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increased use of gene manipulation
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gene revolution
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faster gene manipulation
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second gene revolution
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the world’s genetic variety of animals & plants used for food
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agrobiodiversity
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chemicals directly from plants
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1st generation pesticides
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chemicals produced in a lab
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2nd generation pesticides
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toxic to many different organisms
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broad-spectrum agents
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law that regulates pesticides
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Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, & Rodenticide Act (FIFRA)
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US federal agencies that regulate pesticides
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FDA, USDA, EPA
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residues of some banned substances can return to the exporting countries on imported food
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circle of poison / boomerang effect
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suggests several measures to reduce nutrition related childhood deaths
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United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF)
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growing food on steep slopes using steps
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terracing
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using rows across the slope of land
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contour planting
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alternating strips of a row of crop with a crop that covers the soil
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strip cropping with over crop
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rows are planted b/t trees or shrubs
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alley cropping / agroforestry
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trees planted around crops to prevent wind erosion
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windbreaks / shelterbeds
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special tillers & machines that drill seeds into soil w/o turning up the land
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conservation-tillage farming / no-till / minimum tillage
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commercially prepared mixture of plant nutrients such as nitrates, phosphates, and potassium applied to the soil to restore fertility and increase crop yields.
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commercial inorganic fertilizer

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