Chapter 11- World War II

question

What impact did World War II have on America and the world?
answer

A weak economy, poor living and working conditions, famine, factories could not turn out enough supplies, transportation system broke down, and created incompetent empire-Russians began to distrust the Czar.
question

How did the Allies turn the tide against the Axis?
answer

Churchill persuaded allies that they should invade North Africa first/force out Germans/so Allies can take over Mediterranean/ thought Allies weren’t ready to invade France.
question

Why did the Allies decide to concentrate first on the war in Europe?
answer

Because none of the Allie countries saw Italy or Japan as a serious long term threat so they created the “Europe First” strategy that said the Pacific would be the second priority until Hitler was defeated.
question

Dwight Eisenhower
answer

He was the U. S. general who led the attack in North Africa and he was the master organizer of the D-Day invasion in Europe
question

George S. Patton Jr.
answer

An innovative tank commander known as “Blood and Guts”
question

Why was the Battle of Stalingrad a turning point in World War II?
answer

The Allies pushed the Germans back
question

Unconditional surrender
answer

Giving up completely without any concessions
question

Saturation bombing
answer

To inflict maximum damage
question

Strategic bombing
answer

To destroy Germany’s capacity to make war
question

Tuskegee Airmen
answer

Famous segregated unit of African American pilots
question

What were the goals of British and American bombing runs over Germany?
answer

To destroy much of what Germany had creating war
question

Chester Nimitz
answer

United States admiral of the Pacific fleet during World War II who used aircraft carriers to destroy the Japanese navy
question

Battle of Midway
answer

American defeated Japan resulting in the turning point of war in the Pacific
question

What impact did the Battle of Midway have on Japanese expansion in the Pacific?
answer

Halted Japan from expanding their control in the Pacific
question

How did the war change America at home?
answer

Women began working in jobs that were traditionally for men and African Americans were treated a little more fairly
question

A. Phillip Randolph
answer

He was the black leader of The Brotherhood of Sleeping Car Porters. He demanded equal opportunities in war jobs and armed forces during WWII. He helped encourage the end of segregation in the military, although that happened after the war
question

Executive Order 8802
answer

Order signed by FDR and encouraged by A. Phillip Randolph that assured fair hiring practices in any job funded by the government
question

How did the war create new opportunities for African Americans?
answer

African Americans fought for fair treatment when hiring in the government
question

Bracero program
answer

Plan that brought workers from Mexico to work on American farms
question

How did the war affect the location of industries and workers in the United States?
answer

People flocked to cities that had industrial jobs and had built up industries for war production
question

Internment
answer

Temporary imprisonment of members of a specific group
question

Korematsu v. United States
answer

Concerning the constitutionality of Executive Order 9066 which ordered Japanese Americans into internment camps
question

442nd Regimental Combat Team
answer

World War II unit made up of volunteer Japanese Americans and fought in the Italian campaign
question

Why were Japanese Americans interned during World War II?
answer

Some political and military leaders thought that Japanese Americans would be disloyal to the United States
question

Rationing
answer

Government controlled limits on the amount of certain goods that civilians could buy during wartime.
question

Office of War Information (OWI)
answer

Government agency that encouraged support of the war effort during WWII
question

How did the federal government control resources needed for the war effort?
answer

Americans were given coupon books that limited the amount of certain goods that they could buy
question

How did the Allies defeat the Axis Powers?
answer

Two front war and island hopping
question

On what issues did Stalin, Roosevelt, and Churchill disagree?
answer

When to start a second European front in France
question

D-Day
answer

June 6, 1944, the Allies landed on the beaches of Normandy, France
question

What was the primary objective of the D-Day invasion at Normandy?
answer

To gain a strong position in France and keep pushing back Germany
question

Battle of the Bulge
answer

When Hitler ordered a counterattack on Allied troops in Belgium, but it crippled Germany by using up reserves and demoralizing its troops
question

Harry S. Truman
answer

President after FDR, saw the victory in Europe
question

What were the results of the Battle of the Bulge?
answer

It crippled Germany and demoralized the troops. They were pushed back into Germany and never fought offensively again
question

Island-hopping
answer

World War II strategy that involved seizing selected Japanese-held islands in the Pacific while bypassing others
question

Kamikaze
answer

Japanese pilots who deliberately crashed themselves into American ships, killing themselves
question

Why was the island-hopping campaign in the Pacific so deadly to both sides?
answer

American forces took control only after life and death struggles against Japanese troops who fought fiercely to the last man. Kamikaze pilots also crashed into American ships
question

Albert Einstein
answer

World famous scientist who encouraged FDR to proceed with the creation of the atomic bomb
question

Manhattan Project
answer

Code name for the project that developed the atomic bomb
question

J. Robert Oppenheimer
answer

Physicist who worked on developing the atomic bomb
question

What were the consequences of the decision to bomb Hiroshima and Nagasaki?
answer

As many as 60,000,000 people, mostly civilians had died in the conflict, but Japan did surrender
question

How did the Holocaust develop and what were its results?
answer

Developed from Hitler’s ideas that Jews were an abomination to the world. He created Concentration Camps and Death Camps
question

Holocaust
answer

Nazi attempt to kill all Jews under their control
question

anti-Semitism
answer

Hatred and prejudice toward Jews
question

Nuremberg Laws
answer

-Denied German citizenship to Jews -Banned marriage between Jews & non-Jews -Segregated Jews at entry level of society
question

Kristallnacht
answer

(Night of the Broken Glass) November 9, 1938, when mobs throughout Germany destroyed Jewish property and terrorized Jews
question

How did Hitler enforce anti-Semitism as chancellor of Germany?
answer

By blaming the Jews for all of the bad in Germany, especially German defeat in WWI
question

Genocide
answer

Hitler’s program which systematically kills an entire group of people
question

Concentration camps
answer

Where members of specifically designated groups were confined
question

Death camps
answer

Where prisoners were systematically exterminated
question

What actions did the Nazis take to carry out Hitlers “Final Solution”?
answer

The Final Solution was the final stage of Nazi persecution of the Jews. This consisted of gassing, shootings, and killing two-thirds of European Jews
question

War Refugee Board
answer

A government agency in America created by FDR in 1944 against the will of the State Department to assist people threatened by the Nazis, and eventually was able to save 200,000 people, as well as give money to other countries to free Jews
question

How did the U.S. government respond to the German campaign against European Jews?
answer

It was largely ignored but FDR set up the War Refugee Board to help save thousands of Eastern European Jews, especially Romanian and Hungarian
question

What were the major immediate and long-term effects of World War II?
answer

– United nations-United states, Soviet Union, Britain, France, China -Declares human rights – Bringing war crime to trial- Nuremberg Trials – Balance of powers- two major US and Soviet Union – World map changes- imperialism is declining -US assumes global leadership -New world economy
question

Yalta Conference
answer

FDR, Churchill and Stalin met at Yalta. Russia agreed to declare war on Japan after the surrender of Germany and in return FDR and Churchill promised the USSR concession in Manchuria and the territories that it had lost in the Russo-Japanese War
question

What goals did the Allies set for Eastern Europe at the Yalta Conference?
answer

The two main goals of President Roosevelt at the Yalta Conference were: to get Stalin involved in the war with Japan and to insure the creation of the United Nations
question

Superpowers
answer

Extremely powerful nations
question

What impact did World War II have on the relative roles of the US and Britain in the world?
answer

US and Soviet Union became the world superpowers replacing Britain, France, Japan, Germany, and Italy. The US also became more involved in world affairs.
question

General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT)
answer

A treaty designed to expand world trade while reducing tariffs
question

United Nations (UN)
answer

Created to replace the faltering League of Nations
question

Universal Declaration of Human Rights
answer

A 1948 statement in which the United Nations declared that all human beings have rights to life, liberty, and security
question

Geneva Convention
answer

International agreement governing the humane treatment of wounded soldiers and prisoners of war
question

Nuremberg Trials
answer

Where the Allies prosecuted Nazis for war crimes
question

What steps did the US take to increase its role in the postwar world?
answer

They signed the GATT agreement to help expand world trade by reducing tariffs. The UN is formed, the universal declaration of Human Rights in 1948 is signed condemning slavery and torture worldwide.
question

How did World War II foster support for civil rights?
answer

World War 2 fostered civil rights by helping to break down the barriers of segregation. Blacks were finally able to fight in wars, even though they were still considered expendable. This broke way to more civil rights leading to even black voting.

Get instant access to
all materials

Become a Member