Chapter 11 Vocabulary terms AP gov’t Essay

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ACLU
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The american civil liberties union, an organization that acts to protect the constitutional rights of all citizens.
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Amicus Curaie Breifs
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A brief filed by a party not directly involved in the litigation but with an interest in the outcome of the case. Latin meaning “friend of the court brief”.
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“Beltway Bandits”
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A large not profit firms with trade representatives or lobbyists in washington who win federal grants and contracts.
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Bundling
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A tactic of PACs whereby they collect contributions from like minded individuals and present them to a candidate or political party as a bundle thus increasing their influence.
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Client Politics
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The politics of policy-making in which some small group receives the benefits of the policy and the public at large bears the costs.
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Closed shop
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A company with a labor agreement wherby union membership is a condition of employment
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Collective good
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something enjoyed by all members of a society or community
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Cue
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A signal that tells a politician what values are at stake in an issue and how that issue fits into his/her political beliefs
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Direct Mail
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a mailing from an intrest group focused at a specialized audience whose prupose is both to raise money and mobolize supporters
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Direct Technique
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Direct interaction with government officals that is used by interest groups to further their goals
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“Dirty Dozen”
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A list complied by an enviormental interest group of those legislators who voted most frequently against its measures.
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Economic interest group
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Interest groups that work to gain economic benefits for their members.
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Electioneering
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Campaigning for a candidate, political party or issue in an election.
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Entrepreneurial politics
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Policies benefiting a society as a whole or some large part that impose a substantial cost on some small identifiable segment of society
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Faction
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madisons term for interest groups and political parties
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Federal register
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this official document published every weekday lists new and proposed regulations of executive departments and regulatory agencies
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Free rider
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a person who does not join and interest group representing his or her interests yet receives the benefits of the influence the group achieves.
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Grassroots support
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Backing for a public policy that arises or is created broad public opinion
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Gridlock
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A complete lack of movement or progress in the passage of legislation, typically resulting from conflicts between political parties or between congress and the presdient
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Ideological interest group
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an organization that attracts members by appealing to their interests on a coherent set of usually controversial principles.
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Incentive
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something of value offered by a mass membership of organizations
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Incumbent
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a person who hold political office
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Indirect technique
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Used by interest groups to influence government officals and their decisions.
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Insider strategy
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Lobbyists working closely with a few key members of congress, meeting them privatelu to exchange information and sometimes favors
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Institutional interests
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individuals or organizations representing other organizations
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Interest group
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an organization of people sharing a common interest or goal that seeks to influence the making of public policy
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Interest group pluralism
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Theory that policy is made through competition among interest groups who are trying to influence government officals
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Iron triangle
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3 way alliance between political organizations or agents
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Labor movement
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the organization of the working class groups to further their economic and political interests
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Litigation
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pursuing a case or claim through the judicial process. legal action
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Lobbying
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Efforts by indivuals or organizations to pass, defeat, change, or influence the crafting of laws and decisions
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Lobbyist
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A person who engages in lobbying
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Material Incentive
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An economic motivation for doing something.
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membership interests
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a type of interest group that represents the interests of its members
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Movement
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a large body of people in a common issue , idea, or concern that is of continuing significance and who are willing to take action on that issue.
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nonpartisan interest group
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not affiliated with a political party
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Open shop
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a compaqny with a labor agreement whereby union membership cannot be required as a condition of employment
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Outsider strategy
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The plan increasingly used by lobbyist with the advent of modern technology and employing grassroots lobbying
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Overlapping membership
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the theory that an interest groups power can be diluted by the multiple affiliations of its members.
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PAC
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Political Action Committees; an organization formed to collect money and provide financial support for political candidates LEGALLY ENTITLED
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Paycheck protection
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laws that required unions to give its members a chance to opt out of money taken from their paycheck which is used for political activities.
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Pluralism
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A theory of government that holds that open, multiple, and competing groups can check the asserted power by any one group.
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Pluralistic Political system
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policy making process encompasses the effective competition of interest groups.
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Pressure system
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a theory of american politics in which organized special intrest groups dominate government.
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Private Interest groups
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an interest group working in the interests of a small group of people, as opposed to a public interest group
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Professional interest group
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a type of private interest group that represents the interest of professionals
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Public employees Interest group
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a type of private interest group that works to further the interests of government employees.
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Public Interest
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To benefit members of an entire community
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Public interest group
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A type of interest group that works on issues affecting broad segments of the population.
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Public interest lobby
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An interest group whose efforts significantly benefit nonmembers.
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Purpose incentive
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A motivation that is dependent on ethical beliefs, values, or ideological principles. an incentive to join a mass membership organization based upon the appeal of the groups goals.
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Ratings
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an evaluation supplied by some interest groups that ranks legislators on their degree of support for a particular cause, such as unions or the environmental.
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Revolving door
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the employment cycle in which individuals work, in turn for governmental agencies regulating interests and then for the interest groups or businesse with the same policy concern
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Section 501 groups
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groups
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section 527 groups
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a non profit organization formed under section 527 of the internal revenue code which grants tax-exempt status to political committees at the national, state, and local levels.
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Selective incentive
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Material benefits that are available to members of an interest group.
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single issue group
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an interest group concerned with a single issue such as the NRA
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social movement
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a widely shared demand for change in some aspect of the social ot political order
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soft money
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political contributions made in such a way as to avoid the United States regulations for federal election campaigns (as by contributions to a political action committee)
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solidary incentive
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Motivation based on shared associations, hobbies or interests.
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subsidy
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financial aid that the government provides to indivduals , groups, business or other levels of government
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Tax exempt public charity
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an organization formed under the irs code which grants the organization tax exempt status so long as the group does not get involved in electioneering activity.

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