Chapter #10 – Section 2: Mendelian Genetics

heredity
The passing of traits to the next generation
-Inheritance
gregor mendel
Father of genetics
self-fertilization
The fusion of a male and female gamete in the same flower
recessive allele
Type of allele that is hidden by the expression of the other phenotype
dominant allele
Type of allele that is visible by the expression of the other phenotype
cross-pollination
To breed one plant with another
gametes
Male and female sex cells
true-breeding
To consistently produce offspring with only one form of a trait
genetics
The science of heredity
allele
An alternative form of a single gene passed from generation to generation
homozygous
An organism with two of the same alleles for a particular trait
heterozygous
An organism with two different alleles for a particular trait
genotype
An organism’s allele pairs (Ex: RR and Rr)
phenotype
The observable characteristic or outward expression of an allele pair (yellow or round)
law of segregation
Law in which two alleles for each trait separate during meiosis
monohybrid cross
A cross that involves hybrids for a single trait
law of independent assortment
Law in which a random distribution of alleles occurs during gamete formation
hybrid
Another word for heterozygous organism
punnett square
Item used to predict the possible offspring of a cross between two (or more) known genotypes