Chapter 10 Interest Groups test

an interest group filing an amicus curiae brief
lobbying the judicial branch

hyperpluralists’ main criticism of the interest group system
interest groups are too powerful and government is too deferential to their demands

lobbying
communicating with government officials to persuade them to support a particular policy

How lobbyists seek to influence members of congress
providing specialized expertise

Eliminate the free-rider problem
participation in an interest group were mandatory

Interest groups offer selective benefits to their members because…
to overcome the free rider/ collective action problem

What did a recent study of interest group activity reveal about the importance of financial resources in the interest group system?
Wealthy interest groups tend to align themselves with other wealthy groups and thus successfully overpower poorer interest groups

Why is it significant that business/economic interest groups have more lobbyists than other types of groups?
some people fear that government may disproportionately favor business interests in policymaking

PAC contributions have..
become increasingly important in congressional elections

interest group
refers to an organization that seeks to influence public policy

hyperpluralists
argue that it has been increasingly difficult to accomplish major policy change in Washington

What is one of the reasons that interest groups have proliferated over the past half century?
developments in technology made interest group activities easier

example of a faction
an interest group

consequence of hyperpluralism
contradictory and confusing policy

iron triangle
a form of subgovernment, composed of leaders of interest groups, government agencies and legislative committees

Why are campaign contributions so important for interest groups seeking to influence government?
campaign contributions help elect candidates who are friendly to group’s goals

assumption of pluralism
interest groups are integral to government decisions

statement about PAC campaign contributions made by banks and labor unions
labor PACs consistently give the majority of their money to Democrats, even when Republicans control Congress

main type of organization that lobbies on behalf of workers
labor union

example of public interest lobby
consumer rights group

How is lobbying the executive branch similar to lobbying the courts?
both can involve lobbying related to the implementation of an existing policy

example of single issue group
Virginia 21 Coalition

How might pluralism serve to enhance democracy?
by ensuring that no single interest becomes dominant

what type of group is a trade association
economic interest group

example of a business interest group
Chamber of Commerce

How did the Lobbying Disclosure Act of 1995 affect lobbyists?
It required lobbyists to file a report regarding each of their clients, including how much money they were paid by them for lobbying services

main objective of most labor unions
to protect jobs and secure favorable wages and benefits for their members

You are the leader of an environmental organization working to address the problem of climate change. Given the free rider problem, what would be the most effective way to get others to join your cause?
offer an incentive

James Madison described how a government could be designed to control the effects of…
factions

Why was Madison particularly concerned about factions?
He believed that factions pursuing their self interest would work against the broader public interest

Which of the following statements, if true, would undermine the theory of pluralism?
Individuals with shared grievances do not always come together to form interest groups

activity that lobbyists regularly engage in
providing elected officials with info about an interest group’s position on a bill or issue

Elitist critics of pluralism have noted that…
resources and political power are unequally distributed within society

statement that confirms the theory of pluralism
Elected officials seek out the opinions of multiple interest groups when creating policy

What right-to-work laws uphold
a worker’s freedom to decline the opportunity to join a union

selective/material benefits
benefits given only to group members

Members of Congress who receive contributions from PACs..
make sure that the PACs are granted access to the members and their staff

statement that best represents the hyperpluralist view
the government is excessively deferential to groups

amicus curiae brief
written argument submitted to a court in support of one side of a case

When a case that an interest group is interested in, but not actually sponsoring, comes before a court, the group can…
file an amicus curiae brief

Elitists generally argue that…
the power of few is fortified by an extensive system of interlocking directorates

PACs invest their contributions in order to maximize their political influence by..
investing in campaigns of incumbents

you are the leader of a consumer rights group that has been unable to get a meeting with your elected representative in Congress. How could you get the attention of your legislator on the issues your groups care about?
Organize a demonstration in the representative’s district and invite the media

PACs are an attractive option for campaign contributions because…
they combine many individual contributions resulting in one large contribution that is greater than what one individual could do alone

public interest lobby/group
a group that works to gain benefits for society as a whole

example of free-rider problem
an environmental group struggling to raise funds for a clean air campaign

How do interest groups lobby the courts?
by bringing lawsuits to the courts on behalf of classes of citizens

Which type of organization would find it easiest to overcome the free rider problem?
a trade association representing a small number of firms

Which industry spent the most on lobbying between 2009 and 2011
pharmaceuticals

How did Madison propose to overcome the problem of factions in Federalist No. 10
by expanding their sphere of participation

Why is the correlation between a group’s financial resources and its lobbying success so weak?
Lobbying is a competitive enterprise with big interests often facing off against one another

interest groups are important subjects of study in American politics because..
they determine who runs for elected office

According to Madison… is a group of individuals concerned more with their self-interest than with the rights of individuals outside the group or with the needs of society as a whole
factions

Main goal of iron triangle
protecting their self interest

Example of equality interest
National Organization for women

What does intensity contribute to the success of an interest group?
Politicians are more likely to listen to a group showing intensity

What is a trade association?
an organization that represents business within a specific industry