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Test Answers on Chapter 1: The Study of American Government

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Aristotle
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A philosopher who defined democracy as the “rule of the many”
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authority
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the right to use power.
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bureaucracy
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a system of managing government through departments run by appointed officials
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bureaucratic theory
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a theory that appointed civil servants make the key governing decisions
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citizen participation
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a political system in which those affected by a governmental program must be permitted to participate in the program’s formulation
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city-state
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a city and its surrounding lands functioning as an independent political unit
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community control
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a political system in which local citizens are empowered to govern themselves directly
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democracy
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Government by the people, exercised either directly or through elected representative
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direct democracy
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A form of government in which citizens rule directly and not through representatives
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elite (political)
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An identifiable group of people with a disproportionate share of political power
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elitist theory
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a theory that a few top leaders make the key decisions without reference to popular desires
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Hamilton
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Individual who worried the new government he helped to create would be too democratic
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legitimacy
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The widely-shared pereception that something or someone should be obeyed
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majoritarian politics
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A political system in which the choices of the political leaders are closely constrained by the preferences of the people
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Marxist theory
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a theory that government is merely a reflection of underlying economic forces
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Mills
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A sociologist who presented the idea of a mostly nongovernmental power elite
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New England town meeting
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A North American approximation of direct or participatory democracy
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pluralist theory
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a theory that no one interest group consistently holds political power
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polis
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Greek city-state
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political power
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power used to determine who will hold government office and how the government will behave
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power
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the ability of one person to get another person to act in accordance with the first person’s intentions
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representative democracy
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a government in which leaders make decisions by winning a competitive struggle for the popular vote
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Schumpeter
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An economist who defined democracy as the competitive struggle by political leaders for the people’s vote
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Weber
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A sociologist who emphasized the phenomenon of bureaucracy in explaining political developments