Chapter 1 form chem 1303

question

Chemistry
answer

The study of matter and changes it undergoes
question

macroscopic
answer

things we can touch (seen by naked eye)
question

microscopic
answer

things we can imagine and measure with modern technology (cannot be seen with only the naked eye)
question

Scientific Method
answer

Systematic approach to research (to figuring things out)
question

Law
answer

a concise verbal or mathematical study of the relationship between phenomena that are always the same under the same conditions
question

Theory
answer

unifying principle that explains a body of facts and the laws that are based on those facts
question

Hypothesis
answer

tentative explanation for a set of observations; leads to “if-when” questions; test of theory
question

Matter
answer

anything that occupies space and has mass
–>all matter is made up of chemicals
question

mixture
answer

combination of 2 or more substances in which the substances retain distinct identities (air, milk, cement, tea, coffee)
question

Homogeneous mixture
answer

same composition throughout (sugar in water, tea)
question

Heterogeneous mixture
answer

non-uniform composition (sand + iron filings)
question

substance
answer

form of matter that has a definite or constant composition and distinct properties (H2O, NH3, sugar, gold…)
question

elements
answer

substance that cannot be separated into simpler elements by chemical means
question

Al
answer

Aluminum
question

As
answer

Arsenic
question

Ba
answer

Barium
question

Br
answer

Bromine
question

Ca
answer

Calcium
question

C
answer

carbon
question

Cl
answer

Chlorine
question

Cr
answer

Chromium
question

Co
answer

cobalt
question

Cu
answer

copper
question

F
answer

Fluorine
question

Au
answer

Gold
question

H
answer

hydrogen
question

I
answer

Iodine
question

Fe
answer

iron
question

Pb
answer

lead
question

Mg
answer

Magnesium
question

Mn
answer

manganese
question

Hg
answer

mercury
question

Ni
answer

nickel
question

N
answer

nitrogen
question

O
answer

oxygen
question

P
answer

Phosphorus
question

Pt
answer

platinum
question

K
answer

potassium
question

Si
answer

silicon
question

Ag
answer

silver
question

Na
answer

sodium
question

S
answer

sulfer
question

Sn
answer

Tin
question

W
answer

Tungsten
question

Zn
answer

zinc
question

Compounds
answer

substance composed of atoms of 2 or more elements chemically united in fixed proportions
question

Physical property
answer

can be measured and observed without changing the composition or identity of a substance
question

Chemical Property
answer

requires a chemical change in order to be observed
question

Extensive Property
answer

depends on the amount of material, Ex: mass and volume
question

Intensive property
answer

does not depend on the amount, EX: temperature and density
question

tera-
answer

T
1,000,000,000,000
10^12
1 terameter(Tm)= 1 X 10^12 m
question

giga-
answer

G
1,000,000,000
10^9
1 gigameter (Gm)= 1 x 10^9
question

mega-
answer

M
1,000,000
10^6
1 megameter (Mm)= 1 x 10^6
question

kilo-
answer

k
1,000
10^3
1 kilometer (km)= 1 x 10^3 m
question

deci-
answer

d
1/10
10^-1
1 decimeter (dm)= 0.1 m
question

centi-
answer

c
1/100
10^-2
1 centimeter (cm)= 0.01 m
question

milli-
answer

m
1/1000
10^-3
1 millimeter (mm)= 0.001 m
question

micro-
answer

µ
1/1000,000
10^-6
1 micrometer (µm)= 1 x 10^-6 m
question

nano-
answer

n
1/1,000,000,000
10^-9
1 nanometer (nm)= 1 x 10^-9 m
question

pico-
answer

p
1/1,000,000,000,000
10^-12
1 picometer (pm) = 1 x 10^-12 m
question

1 inch = _____ cm
answer

2.54 cm
question

1 m= ______ inches
answer

39.37 inches
question

1 kg = ______ lb
answer

2.205 lb
question

1 lb = _______ g
answer

454 g
question

1 L = ______ qt
answer

1.057 qt
question

1 gal = ____ L
answer

3.786 L
question

1000 cm^3 = ______ mL
answer

1000
question

1000 mL= _______ dm^3
answer

1
question

1 dm^3 = _______mL
answer

1000
question

1000 mL= _______ L
answer

1
question

1 cm^3 = ______ mL
answer

1
question

density formula
answer

d= mass/volume

usually g/cm^3 or g/mL

question

specific gravity
answer

density of substance/ density of water

a dimensionless quantity

question

?C—> ?F
answer

?F= (9/5)?C +32
question

?F—> ?C
answer

?C= (5/9) (?F- 32)
question

?C—> K
answer

K= ?C + 273.15
question

boiling point of water
a) Kelvin
b) ?C
c) ?F
answer

a) 373 K
b) 100?C
c) 212? F
question

Body temperature
a) Kelvin
b)?C
c)?F
answer

a) 310 K
b) 37?C
c) 98.6?F
question

Room Temperature
a) Kelvin
b) ?C
c) ?F
answer

a) 298 K
b) 25?C
c) 77?F
question

Freezing point of water
a) K
b) ?C
c) ?F
answer

a) 273 KK
b) 0?C
c) 32?F
question

Sig Fig rule for multiplication and division
answer

look for factor with the fewest # of sig figs
question

Sig Fig rule for addition and subtraction
answer

look for value with fewest # of decimal places
question

Significant Figures
answer

# of “significant figures” shows degree of uncertainty in measurement
question

accuracy
answer

how close to the “true” value?

systematic errors

question

precision
answer

how reproducible is the measurement?

random errors

question

Exact numbers
answer

values that are exactly counted or defined can be assumed to have an infinite number of sig figs,

EX: 25 people or 1 foot= 12 inches

question

1 foot= _____ inches
answer

12
question

1 inch = _____ cm
answer

2.54
question

1 mi= ______ ft
answer

5280
question

1 gal= _____ L
answer

3.786

Get instant access to
all materials

Become a Member