Chap. 17 Org. Bio

question

Imagine that a biologist discovers a new species of green algae that has a cuticle-like waxy coating and some rudimentary structures for containing and protecting the gametes. These clues suggest that the new species is very similar to the direct ancestors of the land plants. Where would such a find most likely occur?
answer

a lakeshore or marsh with water levels that rise and fall frequently
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Reproduction of plants differs from reproduction of animals in that _____.
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plants have a distinct, multicellular haploid phase
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Which two features do angiosperms and gymnosperms have in common?
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seeds and pollen
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Which of the following foods are from gymnosperms instead of angiosperms?
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pine nuts and juniper berries
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Which combination of traits would you expect in the female and male flowers of a wind-pollinated plant?
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female: drab with large sticky stigmas; male: drab with many large anthers
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Which of these characteristics is shared by algae and seed plants?
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chloroplasts
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As a group, fungi are _____.
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decomposers
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Fungi release digestive enzymes into their _____
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surroundings
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Basidia produce spores by a process known as _____.
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meiosis
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Gingko biloba, a common urban shade tree, is a gymnosperm with a life cycle that is like that of the pine. Which of the following would be haploid?
answer

pollen
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In angiosperms, pollen grains are released from the _____, land on the sticky _____, and develop a tube down the length of the style to the ovules
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anthers; stigma
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These are the only fungi with flagellated spores.
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chytrids
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Many people see some fungi as dangerous pathogens or destroyers of crops and food. Which of the following claims concerning the beneficial nature of fungi is true?
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Healthy plants and forests could not be sustained without mycorrhizal fungi and fungal decomposition.
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In mosses gametes are produced by _____; in ferns gametes are produced by _____.
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mitosis … mitosis
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Where do fern antheridia develop?
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on the underside of the gametophyte
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The conspicuous part of a fern plant is a _____.
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diploid sporophyte
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In exploring for coal deposits, geologists sometimes look for fossil indicators: fossilized remains of Carboniferous plants. Which of the following combinations in a sample would suggest the presence of rocks that might bear coal beds?
answer

lycophytes and tree ferns
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A species of tree produces clusters of dense, fleshy red berries. The seeds of this tree are most likely dispersed by _____
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animals that eat the fruits and defecate the seeds
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Yeasts reproduce asexually through __________, and molds reproduce asexually through __________.
answer

budding; spores
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Fungi rapidly colonize leaves that fall into freshwater streams. They break down the cellulose in the leaves and absorb the glucose produced. In turn, the fungi serve as food for many insect species that consume the leaf litter; these insects cannot digest cellulose themselves, but gain the nutrients from cellulose indirectly. The insects then provide vital food for stream fish. Taken together, these relationships suggest that fungi __________.
answer

benefit fish by helping insects obtain nutrition from dead leaves
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About 80% of plants have mycorrhizae linking them to
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glomeromycetes
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Gangrene, hallucinations, temporary insanity, and even death can result when humans consume grain infested with
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ergots
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A student discovers a mat of green organisms living along the edge of a stream and suspects it is a moss. To confirm that this organism is a moss and not a green alga, he should look for _____.
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an apical meristem and retention of the embryo
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Ovules are found within structure
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base;leaves
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Which of these is unique to flowering plants?
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double fertilization
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The male gametophytes of flowering plants are also referred to as _____.
answer

pollen grains
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In flowering plants the integuments of the ovule develop into a(n) ____
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seed coat
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A carpel is composed of _____
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stigma, style, and ovary
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In flowering plants one megaspore gives rise to _____ nuclei.
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eight haploid
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A stamen consists of _____.
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anther and filament
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In angiosperms, pollination is the transfer of pollen grain to the _____ of a flower on the same plant or another plant of the same species.
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stigma
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Red maples and other wind-pollinated plants invest relatively little in producing ________ but must invest a great deal in producing ________ to achieve good pollination rates.
answer

showy or scented flowers; massive amounts of pollen
question

Which represents a realistic scenario of sustainable forest management?
answer

A range of forest uses, including some timber harvest and forest clearing, will be managed to fit within the slow natural ability of forests to regenerate.
question

Corn smut is a fungal disease of corn. However, some people like to eat the corn smut fungus. Corn smut, like market mushrooms, is a club fungus, so it should possess __________.
answer

basidia
question

In which of the following locations would you LEAST expect to find a lichen growing?
answer

on a statue in a city known for its polluted air

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