Change Management Answers

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Organizational Change Management (OCM)
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framework 4 managing effect of new business process/change in org. structure/culture changeOC
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Principles of OCM
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-OCM addresses the people side of change management -orgs. must adapt or die, must continuously re-evaluate their business models -thoughtfully & carefully re-aliging the org. based on what strategies & tactics they must employ to reach their long-term goals -using Successful OCM strategies
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Succesful OCM strategies include:
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-agreement on a common vision 4 change (no competing initiatives) -Strong executive leadership to communicate the vision and sell the business case 4 change -Strategy 4 educating employees on how their day-to-day work will change -Concrete plan 4 how 2 measure whether or not the change is a success, & follow up plans for success/unsuccess -Rewards, both monetary & social, that encourage individuals and grps to take ownership 4 their new roles/responsibilites
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Force Field Analysis
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used to identify/quantify readiness for change (1=weak force; 5=strong force)
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Emotional Respones to Change (5 stages of Grieving)
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1.Denial= Shock/Disbelief 2.Anger=Blaming other 4 the change 3.Bargaining=Attempts to make deals 2 avoid the change 4.Depression=Admits that change is inevitable and understands impact 5.Acceptance=Coming to grips with change
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2 Basic Types of Change
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Reactive Change = Closing a performance gap (what it is and what it should be) Proactive Change = Closing an opportunity gap (what it is and what it could be)
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3 Attitudes toward Usage
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1. Avoidance = i’ll only use it when i’m forced to do so 2.Acceptance=just tell what to do & i’ll do it 3.Enthusiasm=I like it! I’ve have some idea on other uses and to make it better
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Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) by Fred Davis
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-suggest that manager can’t get employees to use system until they want to use it -managers may need to employ unfreezing tactics to change employee attitudes -tips to unfreeze include SURVEYS, RESEARCH, MARKET DATA, CAMPAIGN, COALITION OF GRPS
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TAM: changing employees attitudes
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Employee attitudes may change if there is: Percieved Usefulness=degree 2 which person believes that using system will improve performance Percieved Ease=degree 2 which a person believes that using a system wll be effortless
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Skill vs. Will
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Willing/Unable: want to do something but dont know how (CAN’T) Able/Unwilling: know how, but don’t want to (WON’T)
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Kurt Lewin’s Change Theory
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1. Unfreeze status quo 2.Move to a new state 3.Refreeze to make permanent change
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Kotter’s 8 Steps Change Theory
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1. Create sense of urgency 2.Form a coalition 3.Create vision for change 4.Communicate vision 5.Empower ppl to act on vision 6.Create & reward short term wins 7.Consolidate improvements 8.Institutionalize new approaches
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Phases of Change in Kotter’s 8 Step Change Theory
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Steps 1-3: Mobilization (Unfreeze) Steps 4-6: Movement (Change) Steps 7-8: Sustain (Refreeze)
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Burning Platform
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a stance that creates a sense of urgency
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Change Management Process
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1. PLANNING PHASE 2.IMPLEMENTING PHASE 3.SUSTAINMENT PHASE
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Change Management Process: Planning Phase
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Understand the need for change, understand the operating environment Enlist a core change team assess stakeholder resistance Develop a vision (where you want to go) and strategy (how you’ll get there)
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Change Management Process: Implementing Phase = motivate, communicate, act
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Create a sense of urgency, and dissatisfaction with status quo Communicate the vision: what, when, how Action: make structures compatible with the vision, Provide the training employees need
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Change Management Process: Sustainment Phase
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Change policies, structures, and systems that don’t support the vision Hire, promote, and develop employees who can implement the vision
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Bridges Transition Model:
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Ending=>> Neutral Zone=>> New Beginning
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Benefits of Bridges Transition Model
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1. Model can be used to understand how ppl feel as change occurs.
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Limitations of Bridges Transition Model
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1. Can’t be used as an independent change model. NOT a SUBSTITUTE for the other models
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Roger’s Technology Curve:
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Benefits of Roger’s Tech Curve
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1.Helps in creating an understanding of audience for change 2. Provides inputs to identify opinion makers/influencers
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Limitations of Roger’s Tech Curve
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1.Ppl need not fall into one Change Adoption category, they may drift between categories 2.Terms only accurate in HINDSIGHT , they tell you nothing about how ppl might react to change/innovation
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Benefits of Kubler-Ross 5 stage model
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1. Ppls reaction to change is well captured, forms good foundation to develop communication strategy
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Limitations of Kubler-Ross 5 stage model
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1. Assumes worst reaction to change, not all change is bad 2.Difficult to identify transition between stages 3.Difficult to apply to a group
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Prosci’s ADKAR model
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Benefits of ADKAR model
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1. Covers both business/process and individual dimensions of change 2.Provides a clear mngment checklist to manage change
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Limitations of ADKAR model
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1.Misses out on ROLE OF Leadership & principles of program mngmt to CREATE DIRECTION to Change
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In-Class Simulation: 4 individual stages of adoption of change
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-Awareness -Interest -Trial -Adoption

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