Ch2_GuidedReading_Population&Health Essay

question

What is demography?
answer

the scientific study of population characteristics, such as age, gender, occupation, fertility, health, and so on.
question

What is overpopulation?
answer

when the number of people exceeds the capacity of the environment to support life at a decent standard of living.
question

What is a cartogram?
answer

a projection that shows the sizes of countries or formal regions according to population rather than land area as in Fig. 2-2
question

Compare Fig. 2-2 with Fig. 2-3, Why does Russia appear smaller than the United States on Fig. 2-2 compared to Fig. 2-3? Explain.
answer

Russia’s population is less than the United States because the total land mass is larger for Russia than the US. the cartogram is showing size by population and in Fig. 2-3 which is the Robinson projection that shows a relatively good size and shape for the countries and is being used for population distribution.
question

What is the U.S. Census, explain in detail?
answer

a survey of statistical data that is collected every 10 years for household and every 5 years for businesses in the US. This data is used to draw political district lines as well as to determine funding for regions or the needs of a region.
question

What are the four major population clusters on the planet?
answer

East Asia South Asia Europe Southeast Asia
question

Comparing Fig 2-2 and 2-3 again, which 2 population cluster are the largest in total population?
answer

South Asia and East Asia, which is primarily India and China making up this portion
question

Why isn’t North American one of the four major population clusters?
answer

the population is smaller than the other four and the land available for habitation is actually greater than Europe, so the density is less.
question

What is an ecumene (E-Q-ma-knee)?
answer

the portion of the Earth’s surface that that is occupied by permanent human settlements, such as river valley basins, coastal regions, moderate to tropical climates. ¾ of the Earth’s population live on 5% of the Earth’s surface.
question

What are four vernacular regions of our planet that are sparsely populated?
answer

Dry lands, wet lands, cold lands, and high lands
question

How is arithmetic density calculated?
answer

divide the total population of a region by the land area.
question

What is the arithmetic density of Russia based on this data?
answer

144/7=20.5 is the arithmetic density
question

What is physiological density?
answer

the number of people that are actually being supported by a unit area of arable land.
question

Looking at Table 2-1 which country appears to have the best ability to feed its population?
answer

Canada at 3 A.D. and 65 P.D.
question

How is agricultural density calculated?
answer

it is a ratio number of the number of farmers to the arable land (land that can grow crows)
question

Name a country other than Egypt that has high physiological and agricultural densities?
answer

Answers will vary, the answer should be a country dark colors in orange and green from Figure 2-6 and Figure 2-7.
question

What are the three ways that geographers measure population change in the world? Define each.
answer

Crude birth rate (CBR) It is the total number of live births in a year for every 1,000 people alive in the society. A CBR of 20 means that for every 1,000 people in a country, 20 babies are born over a one year period. Crude death rate (CDR) It is the total number of deaths in a year for every 1,000 people alive in society. Comparable to the CBR, the CDR is expressed as the annual number of deaths per 1,000 population. Natural increase rate (NIR) It is the percentage by which a population grows in a year. It is computed by subtracting CDR from CBR, after first converting the two measures from numbers per 1,000 to percentages (numbers per 100). Thus if the CBR is 20 and the CDR is 5 (both per 1,000), then the NIR is 1.5 percent, or 15 per 1,000. The term natural means that a country’s growth rate excludes migration. Boyd’s answer- Crude birth rate (CBR) total number of live births in a year for every 1,000 people alive in that society, often this is referred to as Birth Rate. Crude death rate (CDR) total number of deaths for every 1,000 people alive in the society (population) Natural increase rate (NIR) the percentage by which a population grows in a year, CBR-CDR (% per 1,000 or numbers per 100)
question

What is the doubling time affect?
answer

the number of years needed to double a population, assuming a constant rate of natural increase.
question

Watch this video about the population of the world. https://www.google.com/url?q=http%3A%2F%2Fyoutu.be%2FVcSX4ytEfcE%3Flist%3DPLN4Xl3T1P93yJep0mAJvg4InoTziBF5we How did we grow so much, so fast? Why do think the UN (United Nations) believes the world will level off at 10 billion?
answer

With the advancement of new medicines and food production, the population has exploded in the past 200 years. answers will vary but possible answers might include the increase of communicable diseases which will increase due to high population density. Climate change could cause rising waters, flooding.
question

The United States has an NIR of 0.6. Does that mean the doubling time is more than 54 years or less? Explain:
answer

the rate would not double because 0.6 is less than 1.2% and at 1.2% the doubling rate was in about 54 years
question

How is total fertility rate measured?
answer

to measure the number of births in a society, the TFR is the average number of children a woman will have throughout her childbearing years (15-49 years approx.) It is also a measure for predicting the future of behavior of women in a world of rapid cultural change
question

Will saving poor children increase the world’s population? Watch this Hans Rosling video and then write your informed answer to this question. https://www.google.com/url?q=http%3A%2F%2Fyoutu.be%2FBkSO9pOVpRM
answer

No, it is the opposite effect. When poor children are saved, parents do not need to continue to have them in case one dies to support the economy of the family, as these families are brought out of poverty the TFR will also decrease, leading to less overall world population
question

How does the TFR (Total Fertility Rate) in your family compare to the overall figure for North America?
answer

Answers will vary: my family is at 2, so we are slightly higher than the average of below 2.
question

Looking at the Table 2-2, what might be a reason why the Crude Death Rate for Developed Countries is higher than the Developing Countries?
answer

Because in Developing Countries the IMR is so high that the total amount of population reaching the age limitation of the statistic of the Crude Death Rate would be lower, most are dying young and the life expectancy is also 10 years less as well. All things are not equal and the statistics are based on a lot of different causes, not just one. Better Answer- The population of different countries are at various stages in an important process known as the demographic transition. In developing countries the IMR is so high that the total population reaching the age limitation of the statistic of the Crude Death Rate would be lower, most are dying young and the life expectancy is also 10 years less as well.
question

What are the details of how a population pyramid is constructed? Watch this video along with the textbook to understand this concept. https://www.google.com/url?q=http%3A%2F%2Fyoutu.be%2FRLmKfXwWQtE%3Flist%3DPLN4Xl3T1P93yJep0mAJvg4InoTziBF5we
answer

a pop. pyramid shows the percentage of the total population in 5 yr. age groups (COHORTS), with the youngest age group at the base of the pyramid of 0-4yrs. old, the length of the bar shows the population in that group, “males” are shown on the left side of the pyramid and females on the right.
question

Use the data in this linked chart to create a population pyramid. Use the Excel workbook, called “Population_Pyramid_Template”
answer

This image to the right is what your Population Pyramid should look like for Coppell. The data is fictional but the process is real. This pyramid would show a community with a small elderly population and a community that is mostly families with younger children.
question

What is dependency ratio?
answer

the number of people who are too young or too old to work, compared to the number of people in their productive years. People who are 0 to 14 and 65 and older are normally classified as dependents.
question

What is the sex ratio?
answer

the number of males per 100 females in the population
question

Compare the population pyramid that you created for Coppell to the Population Pyramid for Naples, FL, what are some conclusions that you can make about the population of both? Watch this video to help you with how to understand Population Pyramids more in depth. https://www.google.com/url?q=http%3A%2F%2Fyoutu.be%2FsSoSYm4AOls%3Flist%3DPL23E578F9E0BB39FD
answer

Naples, FL has a high percentage of “elderly” compared to the other age groups within Naples and compared to Coppell as well, conclusion is that Naples FL is a retirement community and Coppell is not, it is a family community with primarily young children. Future of Naples FL, it will continue to stay a retirement community because as the elderly die, there will be others that will move there to take their place, because of climate there it is a destination for retirement. The future for Coppell, is that the schools will continue to increase in population and that the density of the schools will increase greatly.
question

Name a type of community that might have a lot more males than females, see Fig. 2-16?
answer

Answer will vary but should be countries found in the extra dark colored purple regions on figure 2-16, such as Egypt, Greenland, PR China, India, Pakistan, Middle Eastern nations, several African countries.
question

What is demographic transition?
answer

A process of change in a society’s population from high crude birth and death rates and low rate of natural increase to a condition of low crude birth and death rates, low rate of natural increase, and higher total population.
question

What are the four stages of the demographic transition model (DTM) and what defines each? Watch this video to help you answer what the text is describing. https://www.google.com/url?q=http%3A%2F%2Fyoutu.be%2FnonCD5GR9bw
answer

Stage 1: Low Growth-most of human history, no country is in this stage any longer, the hunter-gathering stage Stage 2: High Growth-after 1750 Europe and North America enter into the Industrial Revolution, @ 1950 Stage 2 diffuses to Africa, Asia, and Latin America. Main cause for growth are the advances in medicine Industrial Revolution: the conjunction of major improvements in manufacturing goods and delivering them to market Medical Revolution: developing countries were able to get medical technology, which leads to longer and healthier lives Stage 3: Decreasing Growth-When the CBR drops sharply, the CDR begins to fall also for stage 3, most countries in Europe and N. America moved from stage 2 to stage 3 of the DTM during the first half of the 20th century Stage 4: Low Growth-a country reaches stage 4 when the CBR declines to the point where it equals the CDR and NIR is close to ZERO Zero Population Growth (watch this video also): a term often applied to stage 4 countries, sometimes it is also called stage 5 when the TFR reaches 2.1, a baby to replace the mother and another baby to replace the father, which is really 1 born for every 1 dying.
question

Looking at these population pyramids and using the information from Key Issue 3, determine what the stage of the DTM is for each country and explain why.
answer

India is still in high growth rate, with a wide base, the death rate is at an even decline, all of these are indicators of stage 2 The European Union is still growing in population but as seen in the narrowing of the base the CBR is slowing down, it will become a stage for when the top and the bottom of the pyramid are the same shape, showing ZPG (Zero Population Growth)
question

Explain in detail what the approaches are to reducing the birth rates in the world.
answer

Lowering birth rates through education and health care improving local economic conditions for a community more women attending school, gain employment skills, have control of economy of their life, access to health care better education women understand their reproductive rights and can make informed choices and select effective birth control with improved health care IMRs (Infant Mortality Rates) would decline through these programs and prenatal care, education about sexually transmitted diseases (HIV/AIDS) and child immunizations with the assurance that their children will live to adulthood, women will be more likely to choose contraception to avoid unwanted pregnancies therefore decreasing the CBR
question

What has happened in Ethiopia after 1990 regarding child mortality? Use this video, by Hans Rosling, to help you answer this question and Table 2-2? https://www.google.com/url?q=http%3A%2F%2Fyoutu.be%2FOwII-dwh-bk%3Flist%3DPLN4Xl3T1P93yJep0mAJvg4InoTziBF5we
answer

Increased aid to the country, family planning, prenatal health care. Most of the Somali region are still high in child mortality compared to the capital region of Addis Ababa. Infant mortality rate in developing countries is at an avg. of 48 per 1,000
question

Why have countries in Northern Europe had little if any decline in CBR since 1990?
answer

Northern Europe has plateaued at a low rate and is in the ZPG range, so they are not increasing nor decreasing at this time.
question

Describe the Thomas Malthus’ theory about population.
answer

In 1798 he claimed that the population was growing much more rapidly than Earth’s food supply. He said that food production can not keep up with the current rate of population.
question

Look at the chart in section 2.3.3 that shows growth rates for the future for people and food, then complete this statement. In 1798 Thomas Malthus published an essay in which he claimed that population increased an a(n) _________rate, while the means of subsistence grew at a(n) ____________rate. A. linear; exponential B. cultural; ethnic C. arithmetic; geometric D. declining; increasing E. exponential; linear
answer

E. exponential; linear the population is geometrically (exponential or doubling) and the units of food are arithmetically (linear, rate of +1); exponential is the same as geometric and linear is the same as arithmetic, so C is the wrong answers because it is written backwards and E is the correct answer because it is using the terms as synonyms. The population is geometrically (exponential or doubling) and the units of food are arithmetically (liner, rate of +1).
question

Calculate the units of population and food that Malthus predicted would exist in 200 years, see the chart for 2.3.3.
answer

Based on the pattern in the table, you are doubling the number of people every 25 years and increasing the unit of food by 1 for every 25 years, would give us the net increase in 200 years of 256 people, 9 units of food {164 ; 5+4}
question

What are two reasons why the modern day believers of Malthus’ theory still support his ideas and believe that they are not even severe enough. Use Fig. 2-27 to help you answer this along with the textbook information.
answer

In 1798, there were only 2 countries that had entered stage 2 of the DTM, so he did not anticipate developing countries rising up to become developed countries and thereby counting their growing population. These other countries would have access to medicines and food technologies that would decrease the death rate and the birth rate would increase, so the Neo-Malthusians say that the gap between the population growth and the available resources is growing wider than he anticipated. Neo-Malthusians see a bleak future with not only food resources being unavailble for all the population but also the unavailability of water, energy and other basic resources. As seen in Fig. 2-27 the growth of rice and wheat has slowed down and at this rate, India would not have enough at some point.
question

From what the text describes and as seen in this video & this video, what are 7 different criticisms of the Malthus theory
answer

resources are not fixed, they are expanding or can evolve with technology a larger population would stimulate the economy so more food would be grown, and even more jobs would be greater to feed a larger population a larger population means more people that can think of solutions or inventions resources are not being shared equally this is a barrier not having enough food war has a huge impact on population and can’t be predicted poverty fluctuates and it too is hard to predict lack of infrastructure to move the food isn’t considered
question

What are 4 cultural reasons why Japan’s population is decreasing dramatically and may face a workforce shortage by 2050?
answer

immigration is discouraged by the Japanese gov’t cultural outsiders not welcomed incentives for women to work, reduces TFR for country culture expects women to choose between work and raising children, having both is not encouraged
question

Complete the missing data from the World Population chart below. What if… Year Population TFR 2011 7 billion 2.1 2050 12 billion 2.5 2050 8 billion 1.5
answer

Year, Population, TFR 2011 7 billion 2.1 2050 12 billion 2.5 2050 8 billion 1.5
question

For a country to enter into Stage 5 of the DTM, it must first these 3 characteristics
answer

Increasing CDR Decreasing and low CBR Decreasing, negative gain of the NIR
question

How is the “elderly support ratio” calculated?
answer

#of working-age people (divided by) the number of persons 65 and older
question

Looking at the population pyramid of Japan below, what is the “elderly support ratio” for males and females in 1950, 2008, and 2050 data? This will be different calculation than the dependency ratio.
answer

1950:59.6 working / 4.9 elderly= 12.1 ESR 2008: 64.5 working / 22.1 elderly=2.9 ESR (Elderly Support Ratio) 2050: 51.8 working/39.6 elderly=1.3 ESR
question

What does the declining Elderly Support Ratio in Japan mean for the country?
answer

fewer workers contributing to pensions or health care, and other support jobs that are needed by older people will not be high in demand, the CDR would be higher just because there are more elderly so more will die, resulting in a negative NIR, taking Japan into a stage 5 DTM.
question

Describe why India’s population policies have been mostly unsuccessful in the past 75 years or so? The text and this link show the change over time.
answer

Late 1940s: India did not move out of Stage 1 of the DTM until the late 1940s 1947: After independence the CDR decreased but the CBR continued to increase, the NIR was at 2% per year 1952: birth control is given or subsidized, clinics are opened 1971: sterilization camps established 1972: abortions become legal, several hundred million are performed each year 1976: sterilizations reach height of 8.3 million during a 6 month period 1977: Indira Gandhi defeated in office, new administration doesn’t enforce sterilization program, population begins to increase again rapidly 1980-1984: Indira Gandhi re-elected but sterilization or family planning not emphasized because of opposition to “forced sterilizations” in the past 1984-Current: sterilization still is the number one form of birth control but usually after a woman has several children first
question

Describe # reasons why China has been able to have a lower CBR than the U.S. and India. This site shows the change over time for China through Population Pyramids.
answer

Since 1980 they have been under the “One Child Policy” which means that families are only allowed to have one child, they must get a permit to have a child. Incentives for those that keep to the “One Child Policy” such as more land, money from the govt, a long maternity leave, and better housing. Men are not allowed to marry until age 22 Women are not allowed to marry until age 20 Free contraceptives, abortions, and sterilizations are given by the govt Fines used to have to be paid for more than one child, now it is a fee that is paid, “family planning fee” cultural acceptance for family planning has kept the CBR low for several decades now
question

Why might China’s One Child Policy result in many more male than female children?
answer

The Chinese culture values males over females for many reasons, so if only 1 child is allowed through the One Child Policy, parents will abort girls at a higher rate than boys.
question

Summarize the four stages of the epidemiologic transition. 2.4.1
answer

Pestilence and Famine (High CDR) In stage 1 of the epidemiologic transition, infectious and parasitic diseases were principal causes of human deaths, along with accidents and attacks by animals and other humans. Receding Pandemics (Rapidly declining CDR) Called the stage of receding pandemics. A pandemic is a disease that occurs over a wide geographic area and affects a very high proportion of the population. Improved sanitation, nutrition, and medicine during the industrial revolution reduced the spread of infectious disease. Death rates did not incline immediately and universally during the early years of the industrial revolution. Poor people crowded into rapidly growing industrial cities had especially high death rates. Cholera-uncommon in rural areas- became an especially virulent epidemic in urban areas during the Industrial revolution. Degenerative Diseases (Moderately Declining CDR) It is the stage of degenerative and human-created diseases, and it is characterized by a decrease in deaths from infectious disease and an increase in chronic diseases associated with aging.Two especially important in stage 3 are cardiovascular diseases, such as heart attacks, and various forms of cancer. Sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia have the lowest incidence of cancer, primarily because of the relatively low life expectancy in those regions. Delayed Degenerative Diseases (Low but increasing CDR) This is the stage of delayed degenerative diseases. The major degenerative causes of death- cardiovascular diseases and cancers- linger, but the life expectancy of older people is extended through medical advances. Through more medicine, cancer spread more slowly or are removed altogether.
question

What is an epidemiologic (epa-d-me-ologic) transition?
answer

the stages of the demographic transition that show the specific threats and show how the disease is distributed or diffused.
question

What is epidemiology(epa-d-me-ology)?
answer

the branch of medical science that studies the incidence, distribution, and control of diseases. The concept was originally created by Abdel Omran in 1971.
question

What are examples of “natural checks” that Malthus said would happen in the Stage 1 of the epidemiologic transition?
answer

accidents, attacks by animals and other humans, infectious and parasitic diseases such as the Black Plague (Bubonic Plague)
question

What are the 5 ways the Black Plague, the most violent stage 1 epidemic spread so easily? Here is a video for those of you that are auditory learners 🙂 https://www.google.com/url?q=http%3A%2F%2Fyoutu.be%2FKv0KuufUpOM%3Flist%3DPL6SVDTaDb8VQ5TlAt–VOyW1lXZ1nqZAQ
answer

Fleas from migrating infected rats carried the disease, with it originating in present day Kyrgyzstan it diffused (relocation diffusion) to present day Ukraine when the Tatar army attacked an Italian trading post on the Black Sea. Those fleeing the trading post unknowingly were now carrying the infected rats on their ships as well in SE Europe in 1347. the plage diffused from the coast to inland towns and to rural areas It reached Western Europe in 1348 and Northern Europe in 1349. About 25 million people died of this disease between 1347 and 1350.
question

Stage 2 epidemiologic transition is called the stage of receding pandemics. What is a pandemic?
answer

is disease that occurs over a wide geographic area and affects a very high proportion of the population.
question

What are the characteristics of Stage 3 of the epidemiologic transition model?
answer

decrease in deaths from infectious diseases and an increase in chronic disorders associated with aging, such as cardiovascular disease and cancer.
question

In what climate zone are most of the countries that have experienced cholera recently? Use Fig. 2-31 and 1-39 on page 32 (Climate Zones).
answer

Tropical climate zones
question

What are the characteristics of stage 4 of the epidemiologic transition?
answer

degenerative diseases are delayed but are still the primary causes of CDR. Medical technology advancements in surgery and treatments are being used. Improved healthy choices by the people but consumption of non-nutritious food and sedentary behaviour result in obesity which will lead to long term chronic illnesses such as Type II Diabetes.
question

Have you had a parent or grandparent who lifespan was extended by modern medical advances? Explain if yes, if no relate what might be a possible example.
answer

Yes, my mother had skin cancer and had it removed, with reconstructive surgery. Also my Grandmother had a “pig valve” which replaced a heart valve, it extended her life by 5 years, after 5 years she had it replaced one more time. She died exactly 5 years later. Maria- No, but a possible example may be if they better their diet, reduce their use of tobacco and alcohol, and improve on their exercise. Eva- Yes. My great-grandpa was in great medical attention when he got a stroke. The medicine and treatment that he received helped him recover more efficiently. His lifespan was then extended for a great amount of years. Aoife- Yes, my nana had many issues with her knees and had actually blacked out multiple times because of taking too many antibiotics. She later began getting acupuncture and that helped her regain strength so she could walk and exercise like before.
question

What are the 3 reasons for a stage 5 of the epidemiologic transition?
answer

evolution poverty increased connections
question

Complete this statement: Infectious disease microbes have continuously evolved and changed in response to environmental pressures by developing resistance to drugs and insectisides.
answer

Infectious disease microbes have continuously evolved and changed in response to environmental pressures by developing resistance to drugs and insecticides.
question

Some diseases are prevalent in developing nations or in economically poor regions. Looking at Fig. 2-35 we see an example of this type of “poverty diseases” is Tuberculosis (TB) also known as “consumption”. Which country is indicated as a high population of TB cases over 300,000 in East Asia? What might be a contributing cause for such high TB cases in this particular country.
answer

North Korea North Korea is a communistic country that is sanction by most of the developed countries in the world including the U.S. because of Human Rights Issues and the development of Nuclear Weapons against the restriction of the United Nations. Therefore the country is extremely impoverished and the people do not have adequate medical treatments available to them. They are restricted in their movements in and out of the country so seeking treatment elsewhere would be very costly and possibly risky.
question

Where in the world has the HIV-AIDS epidemic had the greatest impact? A. inner-city United States B. Russia C. Subsaharan Africa D. Southeast Asia E. Southwest China
answer

C. Subsaharan Africa
question

Have other pandemic diseases diffused rapidly in recent years? Watch this video to help you answer this question. https://www.google.com/url?q=http%3A%2F%2Fyoutu.be%2FK0qrMPObz9A
answer

Yes, Ebola, Thomas Eric Duncan was patient zero that brought the disease from Liberia to the United States (Dallas, TX). Others since his arrival have been infected or under the 21 day quarantine.
question

What defines the Infant Mortality Rate (IMR)?
answer

yearly number of deaths of infants under 1 years old compared with total live births, this number is for every 1,000 births, rather than a percentage.
question

What is the Life Expectancy at birth measurement?
answer

this is the average number of years that a newborn infant can expect to live at current mortality levels.
question

Why do men have lower life expectancies than women in most countries?
answer

Answers will vary: some possible causes, usually males are fighting as soldiers in conflicts, males have a lower life expectancy worldwide due to stress levels and chronic diseases that more often are found in males than females such as congestive heart disease, etc…Often in many cultures, the women are the ones that receive medical treatments and men do not either for lack of money to do so or sacrificing themselves for the women in the family to see the doctor instead. Some men might say it’s because they live with women, ha, ha! J.K.
question

The term “per capita” means for each person. Understanding this what is the government expenditure percentage on health care, for the country of Liberia, the epicenter for the Ebola outbreak? See Fig. 2-43.
answer

13% and above in the dark green
question

Based on your findings for question 67, not examine the Hospital Beds per 10,000 people and the Physicians per 10,000 for the same country of Liberia, what is the data for each of those? See Fig. 2-44 and 2-45. Hospital Beds per 10,000 People: 30-49% Physicians per 10,000 People: 150-299%
answer

Hospital Beds per 10,000 People: Below 10:10,000 Physicians per 10,000 People: Below 50:10,000
question

Based on this small amount of data. What questions could be raised about the country of Liberia and their use of money towards health care?
answer

Answers will vary: I would wonder if they’re government expenditure is high at 13% or greater, yet they have the lowest level of hospital bed and physicians, I am wondering what they are spending the money on. Could there be possible corruption with money not getting to its destination or is being diverted for another use.
question

Why might levels of hospital beds and physicians be lower in North America than in other developed countries?
answer

Answers will vary: possible answers…many doctors practice maintenance medicine and treat people without admitting them to the hospital. Many people in the U.S. are able to get health care treatment before it gets to the point when they are so sick that they have to go to the hospital. Also because being admitted to a hospital is so very expensive, people try not to go to one unless it is really necessary and then they check out as soon as they can. When this book was published the Affordable Healthcare Act had not yet passed. With those changes these maps may look different in 10 years or less.
question

Explain from the text what the relationships are for overpopulation, which of the 5 Themes of Geography is this referring to?
answer

Overpopulation is really about the relationship between the population itself and the amount of resources available for those people. The capacity of the land to sustain life comes from the natural environment and from human action to change the environment or HEI (Human Environment Interaction).

Get instant access to
all materials

Become a Member