Ch. 9 – PSY 3460 Questions Essay

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Which of the following is not an example of a group?
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Seven commuters waiting together silently at a bus stop
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One reason people join groups is to
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Accomplish objects that are more difficult or impossible to accomplish alone
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Group cohesiveness is particularly important for a group when
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The group has formed for primarily social reasons
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From an evolutionary perspective, groups
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Help fulfill a basic human need to affiliate and belong with others
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With the redistricting of the school system, Coach Taylor’s football team for the upcoming season is more diverse than usual, with kids from a wide range of backgrounds, including socioeconomic status, race/ethnicity, family status, sexual orientation, and even football experience. Research suggests which of the following conclusions regarding a diverse group such as this?
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His team is likely to experience threats to morale and group cohesion, but these challenges will probably lessen as the season goes on.
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The concept of social facilitation is so named because of the idea that when the presence of others is arousing,
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This arousal facilitates a well-learned, dominant response
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Which of the following is not an explanation for why the presence of other people can be arousing?
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Having other people around makes an individual feel less accountable for his or her own actions.
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Your social psychology professor calls you up in front of the classroom and asks you to answer a series of course-related questions out loud. Even though you feel the eyes of your classmates on you, you find the questions to be easy. According to the model of _________, you should perform _______ on these questions than you would have if you had been asked them in private, without an audience
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Social facilitation; better
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Which of the following individuals would you expect to be most likely to engage in social loafing?
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Andy, a British man
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Individuals experiencing deindividuation
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Exhibit greater conformity to specific group norms
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Which of the following is not an example of process loss?
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Transactive memory
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One step that can be taken to reduce the likelihood of groupthink is
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Creating subgroups that meet on their own first before reconvening and sharing the content of their discussions with the group at large
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Walk, Jesse, Mike, and Gus are business partners trying to decide whether they should invest in a risky new direction for their company. Jesse gets the feeling that his partners are leaning toward the risky option. In order to convince his parents that he is a valued member of the company and a “good” group member, Jesse speaks up in strong, public terms in favor of the risky decision, and he leaves the meeting even more convinced than he was before that they should take the risk. Jesse’s personal shift in the risky direction illustrates the __________ explanation for group polarization
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Social comparison
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Research on personality type and leadership indicates that
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People of all different personality types can become successful leaders
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A __________ leader is one who sets clear, short-term goals and rewards people for meeting them.
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Transactional
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When is comes to social dilemmas
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The most beneficial course of action for an individual will, if chosen by most people, be harmful to all in the long run
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Consider the prisoner’s dilemma. You will receive the worst possible outcome for yourself as an individual if
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You are cooperative but your partner is selfish
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Two fishing companies, Hufflepuff and Ravenclaw, use the same body of water to catch fish. Both companies are considered building dams that would allow them to cut off the water supply and prevent the other company from fishing. Research on the power of threats indicates that if both companies build a dam and gain the ability to prevent the other from fishing
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Conflict will increase because each side has equal threat capacity
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A(n) __________ solution is an outcome to a negotiation in which each side concedes on issues that are unimportant to it but are important to the other side
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Integrative
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According to Sigmund Freud, _________ is an inevitable by-product of civilization
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Conflict
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Why are groups often homogenous (comprised of members who are alike in age, sex, beliefs, and opinions)?
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People who are already similar to each tend to be drawn to joining the same groups
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Group cohesiveness is best defined as
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Qualities that bind members together and promise liking between members
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You are trying to decide whether to take a test in a lecture hall where you will be surrounded by lots of other people or in a room by yourself. Assuming that you have studied well for the test and find the material to be easy, you will perform best on the test in the ________ because it will result in __________
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Lecture hall; social facilitation
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The tendency to engage in social loafing is stronger in __________; it is also stronger in ___________.
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Men than women; Western cultures than Asian cultures
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On his way back from class, Sanjeev encounters an angry mob ready to storm the dining hall to demand better food. Sanjeev likes the food as it is and wants to stop the mob. What would be the most effective solution?
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Finding a friend in the group, calling out her name, and talking to her loudly in front of everyone
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Four psychology student working on a group project together are trying to figure out how they should avoid groupthink when making decisions about their project. Which of these ideas would be the least helpful?
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Bonding by going to see a movie together before starting the project
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Jim and Pam, a married couple, are buying a house and have narrowed their choice down to two options. Jim remembers that one house has a beautiful kitchen; Pam, however, remembers that there were roaches in the brown closet. By sharing this information with each other, Pam and Jim are using __________ to avoid ___________
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Transitive memory; process loss
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Which of the following is most likely to lead to process loss in a committee?
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The committee members are good friends and have known each other for years
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Which of the following is true about research on leadership?
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Female leaders are more likely than male leaders to be put in precarious, high-risk positions where it is difficult to succeed
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When is communication most effective for resolving conflict?
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When a mediator is used

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