Ch. 8 sociology online study guide Essay

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The primary difference between capitalism and socialism is
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a difference in how property is owned and controlled.
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_____ is an economic system based on private property and market exchange
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capitalism
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Socialism is
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an economics system where the government owns property and controls production.
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Which of the following is the clearest example of the pervasiveness of markets in the intimate spaces of people’s lives?
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The market for help naming children
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The rational-choice perspective of markets assumes that
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individuals make decisions that they think will improve their well-being.
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According to sociologists, what does the rational-choice perspective of markets overlook?
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Concerns and consideration about social forces
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The sociological study of markets focuses on which factor, or which combination of factors, to explain how markets work?
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Social networks, power, and culture
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Why do markets need social ties?
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To maintain levels of trust necessary to carry out economic transactions
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Auditing firms often face problems of conflict of interest and resource dependency because
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auditors are paid by the very companies whose books they are required to validate.
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Insider trading is an example of a(n)
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formal market rule.
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When the March of Dimes changed its mission from fighting polio to fighting birth defects, it exhibited which common organizational feature?
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persistence
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Max Weber
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provided the most influential description and analysis of bureaucratic organizations.
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Alpha Corporation, which has developed an impermeable shell that protects it from environmental demands, strongly resists change and thus is said to exhibit
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structural inertia
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The better an organization matches its initial environment, the stronger its structural
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inertia
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Of the following higher education institutions, which two are most likely to be in the same niche market?
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Harvard University and Yale University
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The landmark legislation that declared that citizens with disabilities should have the same access to physical spaces such as their buildings and bathrooms as their nondisabled peers is called the
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Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990.
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Organizational isomorphism is a concept used by sociologists to explain why organizations in the same field tend to become _____ over time
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increasingly similar
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Organizational isomorphism is the result of
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organizations competing against each other in the market
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Growth of specialization in the kinds of jobs people hold
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has continued right up to the present
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_______ among workers tends to _______
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cooperation,increase productivity
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A series of experiments conducted in the 1920s and 1930s with different teams of workers to see what factors might induce them to produce more output were called the
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Hawthorne Studies.
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What is the chief characteristic of the assembly line system of production?
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Every task workers perform is completely scripted for them.
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The overall pattern of job growth over time suggests that there has been a long-term shift towards jobs that require
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more skill and more education.
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Which of the following job skills is more easily measured than the others?
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Measuring a manufacturing process
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Increasingly, the large assembly line factories, in which an individual worker performs a single task (or set of tasks) is being replaced by workplaces where cooperation among workers in encouraged and
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jobs are more interchangeable and interconnected.
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In terms of job satisfaction, people tend to rate jobs as better when they
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feel trusted by their employer.
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_____ refers to how much a particular job allows workers to control their activity.
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autonomy
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Satisfaction in work performed is invariably lower when
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actions are tightly controlled or monitored.
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In comparison with other countries with advanced economies, the United States has
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less workplace regulation and weaker labor unions.
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Unionization rates reached their peak in the United States in the
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1950s
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Which of the following consequences of lean production has been more consistently harmful to workers than the others listed?
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The elimination of health and pension benefits.
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American workers are increasingly reliant on employers for __________, whereas workers in other rich countries are not.
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retirement benefits
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Amir, like most people in his community, makes weekly trips to the village square, where local vendors sell their goods. Everyone in the area is familiar with what will be available to purchase and how transactions are to be conducted. Although the exchanges between buyers and sellers may seem frenetic to outsiders, the locals adhere to set of regulations and norms that satisfies and needs of all involved. This scenario conforms to the sociological definition of which term?
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market
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After running her own successful pet-grooming business in Northern California, Caitlyn left family and friends and moved to Southern California, where she knew no one. Upon arrival, she immediately set up business in her new environment but became frustrated when no one seemed to notice her pet-grooming shop, much less patronize it. Caitlyn’s situation exemplifies the important of ____ in establishing how market exchange happen.
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Social networks
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For 23 years, a group of 12 men and women has been operating successful charity for families impacted by AIDS. The group has seen many changes over the years, regarding personnel, community needs, medical advances, and economic climate. The charity has endured throughout the years because of its sense of purpose and commitment. What kind of a group is it?
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An organization.
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During a break at the company that employs them both, Liz and Phil discuss what they dislike about their jobs. Liz is eager to implement some innovative ideas, but her boss is neither enthusiastic about her suggestions nor hopeful that upper managements would adopt them. Phil is new to the company, but is already bored with the tedious routine of his job. They both dream about a more exciting, innovative workplace. Liz and Phil’s complaints are indicative of the negative aspects of
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a bureaucracy.
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A Southwestern U.S. chain has opened an outlet in New Orleans. The new outlet’s manager is familiar with the myriad federal, state, and local regulations that govern the operation of eating establishments. The restaurant chain also has a long list of its own rules and guidelines. Knowing the distinct preferences of Ne Orleans diners, the manager decides to bypass some of the specifies of all of these regulations, while complying with health standards for storing, handling, preparing, and serving food to ensure repeat business. What action is manager engaging in?
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Loose coupling.
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Julie opened a bookstore in 1992 and was pleased that it soon became a favorite gathering spot for local college students. As technology rapidly advanced all around her, demanding major adaptations at all the larger bookstore chains in her area, Julie exhibited structural inertia. Which of the following decisions is confirmation of Julie’s structurally inert bookstore business?
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Julie resists selling e-books even though her customers have asked her to do so.
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Alana is enrolled in a university-level business strategy course. She is required to submit an in-depth case analysis of a business affected by coercive isomorphism. Of the following businesses, which do you think represents the most fruitful subject for her analysis?
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A pharmaceutical firm
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Enrique took pride in his ability to handcraft furniture, enjoying each step in construction, assembly, and finishing of each piece. When his business failed, he began working at a furniture manufacturing plant, where he was responsible for nailing upholstery to sofa and chair frames. Enrique’s experience is an example of
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deskilling
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In bureaucracy the _______ a position is the more ______ that position has.
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higher up,authority
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When new government regulations are passed an organization will most likely engage a ______ isomorphism to meet regulatory standards, and, they may use _____ isomorphism to go about making specific changes.
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coercive,mimetic
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Teacher, physical therapist, machine operator, and desk attendant are all examples of
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occupations
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The ________ is a product of ________.
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the assembly line, scientific management
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The use of ________ in the production process can be both negative and positive for workers.
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technology
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Janet works multiple part-time jobs. Both jobs require her to work a different schedule of hours each week and pay just above minimum wage. She receives no nonwage benefits from either employer. How would sociologist classify a worker like Jill?
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As a member of the precariat.
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One might argue that the decline of unionization in the United States encouraged
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the use of lean production methods
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Bureaucracies often stifle ______, but improve _______.
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creativity,efficiency
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At the time of its uprising, the Industrial Revolution changed the nature of the ______ in society
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division of labor
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A company named Worldwide Widget Distributors is conducting a job search for a new regional sales manager. Based on what researchers have documented about how power influences hiring decisions, which of the following applicants is most likely to get the job?
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A young white male who recently graduated from a top-tier university.

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