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Ch. 6 Emotional and Social Development in Infancy and Toddlerhood

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Erikson’s Theory of Infant and Toddler Personality
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Basic Trust Vs Mistrust Autonomy Vs Shame & Doubt
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Emotional Development
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Development of Basic Emotion Understanding and Responding to the Emotion of Others Emergence of Self Conscious Emotions Beginnings of Emotional Self-Regulation
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Temperament and Development
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The Structure of Temperament Measuring Temperament Stability of Temperament Genetic Influences Environmental Influences Temperament and Child Rearing: The Goodness of Fit Model
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Development of Attachment
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Ethological Theory of Attachment Measuring the Security of Attachment Cultural Variations Factors That Affect Attachment Security Multiple Attachments Attachment and Later Development
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Self-Development During the First Two Years
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Self-Awareness Categorizing the Self Self Control
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Two related aspects of personality development during the first two years
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Close ties to others Sense of self
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Erikson recognized that many factors affect parental responsiveness-feelings of personal happiness, current life conditions (for example, additional young children in the family), and culturally valued child-rearing practices.
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Basic Trust vs. Mistrust
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Babies earliest emotional life consists of two global arousal states
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attraction to pleasant stimulus and withdrawal from unpleasant stimulus. Development of basic emotions
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Four Basic emotions that have received the most attention
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happiness, anger, sadness, and fear. Development of Basic Emotions
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During the early weeks, newborn babies smile when full, during REM sleep, and in response to gentle stroking of the skin and the mother’s soft voice. By the end of the first month, infants smile at dynamic, eye catching sights, such as a bright object jumping suddenly across their field. of vision.
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Happiness
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Laughter, which appears around 3 to 4 months, reflects faster processing of information than smiling.
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Happiness
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Neborn babies respond with generalized distress to a variety of unpleasant experiences including hunger, changes in body temperature, and too much or too little stimulation. From 4 to 6 months into the second year (2 1/2), angry expressions increase in frequency and intensity.
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Anger and Sadness
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Cognitive and motor development contribute to this rise in angry reactions
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Anger and Sadness
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Like anger _______ arises during the second half of the first year. (1 1/2)
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Fear
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The rise in fear after age 6 months keeps newly mobile babies enthusiasm for exploration in check. As part of this adaptive system, encounters with strangers lead to two conflicting tendencies.
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Approach (indicated by interest and friendliness) Avoidance (indicated by fear)
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Around three to four months, infants become sensitive to the structure and timing of face to face interaction. When they gaze, smile, or vocalize, they now expect their social partner to respond in kind.
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Understanding and responding to the emotions of other in relation to emotional development
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From 5 months on, infants perceive facial expressions as organized patterns and can match the emotion in a voice with the appropriate face of a speaking person.
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Understanding and responding to the emotions of others in relation to emotional development
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Infants engage in social referencing at around 8 to 10 months
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Understanding and responding to the emotions of others in relation to emotional development
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______________ helps young children move beyond simply reacting to other’s emotional messages. They use those signals to guide their own actions and to find out about other’s intentions and preferences.
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Social referencing
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Self-conscious emotions appear at the end of the second year, as 18-24 month olds become firmly aware of the self as a separate, unique individual. Pride comes up at this time as well.
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Emergence of Self-Conscious Emotions in relation to emotional development
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Envy comes up in personality by age 3
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Emergence of Self-Conscious Emotions in relation to emotional development
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Emotional self regulation requires voluntary, effortful management of emotions, a capacity that improves gradually, as a result of development of the cerebral cortex and the assistance of caregivers. A good start in regulating emotion during the first two years contributes greatly to autonomy and mastery of cognitive and social skills.
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Beginnings of Emotional self regulation in relation to emotional development
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By 4 to 6 months, the ability to shift attention away from unpleasant events helps infants control emotion. At the end of the first year, crawling and walking enable infants to regulate feelings by approaching or retreating from various situations.
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Beginnings of Emotional Self-Regulation in relation to emotional development
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Temperament is often assessed through interviews or questionnaires given to parents. Behavior ratings by pediatricians, teachers, and others familiar with the child and laboratory observations by researchers have also been used.
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measuring temperament in relation to temperament and development
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Research indicates that identical twins are more similar than fraternal twins across a wide range of temperamental and personality traits. In chapter 2, we noted that heritability estimates suggest a moderate role for heredity in personality: On average, half of individual differences have been attributed to differences in genetic makeup.
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genetic influences in relation to temperament and development
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Environment also has a powerful influence on temperament. For example, we have seen in earlier chapters that persistent nutritional and emotional deprivation profoundly alters temperament, resulting in maladaptive emotional reactivity.
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environmental influences in relation to temperament and development
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If a child’s disposition interferes with learning or getting along with others, adults must gently but consistently counteract the child’s maladaptive style.
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temperament and child rearing: the goodness of fit model in relation to temperate and development
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By 1 1/2 (the second half of first year) infants have become attached to familiar people who have responded to their needs.
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development of attachment
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The infant’s relationship with the parent begins as a set of innate signals that call the adult to the baby’s side. Over time, a true affectionate bond develops, supported by new cognitive and emotional capacities as well as by a history of warm, sensitive care.
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ethological theory of attachment
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Attachment develops in four phases of the most widely accepted view known as ethological theory of attachment
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Pre-attachment phase Attachment in the making phase Clear cut attachment phase Formation of a reciprocal relationship
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Pre-attachment phase
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[BIRTH TO 6 WEEKS] Built in signals, grasping, smiling, crying, and gazing into the adult’s eyes-help bring newborn babies into close contact with other humans, who comfort them.
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Attachment in the making phase
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[6 WEEKS TO 6-8 MONTHS] During this phase, infants respond differently to a familiar caregiver than to a stranger. As infants learn that their own actions affect the behavior of those around them, they begin to develop a sense of trust-the expectation that the caregiver will respond when signaled-but they still do not protest when separated from her.
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Clear cut attachment phase
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[6-8 MONTHS TO 18 MONTHS-2 YEARS] Babies display separation anxiety, becoming upset when their trusted caregiver leaves. Like stranger anxiety, separation anxiety does not always occur; it depends on infant temperament and the current situation. But in many cultures, separation anxiety increases between 6 and 15 months. Besides protesting the parent’s departure, older infants and toddlers approach, follow, and climb on her in preference to others. And they use the familiar caregiver as a secure base from which to explore.
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Formation of a reciprocal relationship
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[18 MONTHS-2YEARS AND ON] Rapid growth in representation and language permits toddlers to understand some of the factors that influence the parent’s coming and going and to predict her return. As a result, separation protest declines.
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According to Bowlby out of their experiences during these four phases, children construct an enduring affectionate tie to the caregiver that they can use as a secure base in the parent absence. This image serves as an internal working model.
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ethological theory of attachment in relation development of attachment
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measuring the security of attachment
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observing infants responses to these episodes researchers have identified a secure attachment pattern and three patterns of insecurity. Secure attachment. Avoidant attachment, resistant attachment, disorganized/disoriented attachment.
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Findings indicate that securely attached babies more often maintain their attachment status than insecure babies. The exception is disorganized/disoriented attachment, an insecure pattern that is as stable as attachment security.
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Stability of attachment in relation to development of attachment
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Factors that affect attachment security
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opportunity to establish a close relationship quality of caregiving the baby’s characteristics family context
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Opportunity for attachment
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Attachment bond can develop with adoptive parents as late as 4-6 years thought difficulties may occur.
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Quality of caregiving
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sensitive caregiving-responding promptly, consistently, and appropriately to infants and holding them tenderly and carefully-is moderately related to attachment security in diverse cultures and SES groups. In contrast insecurely attached infants tend to have mothers who engage in less physical contact, handle them awkwardly or routinely and are resentful and rejecting, particularly in response to infant distress. Security may depend on attentive caregiving, not necessarily on frequent physical affection or face to face interaction.
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Infant characteristics
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Infant characteristics are only weakly related to attachment quality because many child attributes can lead to secure attachment as long as the caregiver behaves sensitively.
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Parents’ internal working models
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Parents bring their own history of attachment experiences from which they construct internal working models that they may apply to bonds they establish with their babies.