ch. 3 newspapers

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seditious language
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language that authorities believe could incite rebellion against the government
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libel
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a false statement that damages a person’s character or reputation by exposing that person to public ridicule
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1690, Publick Occurrences
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America’s first newspaper was published in Boston when? What was it called?
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1982
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Gannett Co. creates USA Today, using splashy format and color
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El Misisipi
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America’s first Spanish-language newspaper, beginning in GA
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Freedom’s Journal, 1827
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John Russwurm and Reverend Samuel Cornish begin the nation’s first African American newspaper
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The New England Courant; James Franklin
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the first newspaper to appear without the Crown’s \”published by authority\” sanction; 1721
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The Boston News-Letter; 1704
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nation’s first consecutively issued newspaper; edited by John Campbell
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John Peter Zinger trail
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established a landmark precedent for freedom of the press in America – the concept that truth is the best defense for libel
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1734, the New York Weekly Journal
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what year and what paper was the Zinger trail based on?
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alternative (dissident) press
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media that present alternative viewpoints that challenge the mainstream press; EX. emancipation and women’s suffrage
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penny press
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a newspaper produced by dropping the price of each copy to a penny and supporting the production cost through advertising
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yellow journalism; jazz/tabloid journalism
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news that emphasizes crime, sex, and violence
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1833, Benjamin Day
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the first publisher to drop his paper, the New York Sun, to the price of just a penny and sell it everyday; popularized the news with scandals, police reports and celebrities
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Henry J. Raymond, 1851
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founded the New York Times, a penny paper
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newspapers
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the only form of daily news from 1690 to 1920
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colonial newspapers
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pretty dull publications; outdated news, no pictures; and some local news on disease, etc.
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press assembly religion petition speech
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five freedoms of the 1st Amendment
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steam powered press =more efficient cheaper paper took more advertisers
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3 reasons why the penny press was able to happen
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1844
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the year of the telegraph
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Samuel Morse
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the inventor of the telegraph
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the telegraph
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a disruptive innovation in journalism. rapid transmission of information over distances
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wire services
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telegraph message transmitted over wires; Associated Press; newspapers would pool resources and have one journalist out in the field to report to many
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Joseph Pulitzer William Randolph Hearst
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revived and refined the penny press sensationalism in the late 19th century
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Hearst
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ran his father’s San Francisco Examiner and later bought the New York Journal; yellow journalist and dubbed the spanish american war the \”Journal’s War\”
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during the Civil War, newspapers gained popularity, news about loved ones in the war became increasingly important
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Matthew Drady
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took to photographing Civil War battlefields, published in magazine and galleries in big cities; allowed the public to recognize how awful war was; paved the way to photojournalism
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tabloid
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a small-format newspaper that features large photographs and illustrations along with sensational stories
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syndicates
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new agencies that sell articles for publication to a number of newspapers simultaneously
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stunt journalism
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Nellie Bly (Elizabeth Cochran) and her journey \”Around the world in 80 days\” and in an insane asylum; investigative journalism that details an individual’s experiences from a deeply personal perspective; individual will choose a situation, and immerse themselves in the events and people involved; less about writer’s life, more about writer’s experiences
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Nellie Bly
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first female investigative reporter in the late 1800s
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science, scientific method
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as this subject became more important, a certain method was then applied to journalistic coverage
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Adolf Ox
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purchased the New York Times in 1896, helped make it so respected; downplayed sensationally and aimed at a higher social strata of readers
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ethnic press
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newspapers and TV stations that provide news for other languages; immigrants and domestic minorities
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Northern Star
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Frederick Douglas’ pre Civil War paper
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Ida B. Wells
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African American woman, wrote for a Mississippi newspaper, wrote editorials against lynching in the 1800s
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1960s,70s
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when women started to have more influence in the newspaper industry. Women hired for Newsweek to research only, not allowed to write
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NYT Wall Street Journal USA Today
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three largest national newspapers today
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USA Today, 1982
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when this national newspaper came out, considered revolutionary. colorful, graphic, short, positive tone, no home city; newspapers looked down on it, but readers liked it
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by 1990s
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newspapers go online
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not successful advertising
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problems with online newspapers
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a New Orleans newspaper decided this past summer to only publish hardcopies 3 days a week and the rest online; people furious; some dont have access to computers; newspaper was losing money though
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advertisement model microchip model
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evolving, changing model of newspapers?
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if all go online and charge subscriptions, only those who can afford it can get the news. Only those with computers can get the news
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are newspapers back to an elitist thing??
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the cultural concept of an independent press
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newspapers are historically important in defining……..
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Publick Occurrences, 1690
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this newspaper was only published once because local officials stopped it
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James Franklin published the first newspaper without the heading \”Published by Authority\”
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the tradition of an independent press in the US began in 1721 when……
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If what a newspaper reports is true, the paper cannot successfully be sued for libel
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the John Peter Zinger case established what important legal precedent?
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14
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By the American Revolution, at least _____ women had worked as printers in the colonies.
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Stamp Act
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1765-1766, taxed publishers for their issues. Protesters adopted \”No taxation without representation\”
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Alien and Sedition Laws
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1798-1800, the federal government’s first attempt to control its critics. \”Anyone who shall write, print, or publish false, scandalous, and malicious writing against the government\” could be fined or jailed
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William Lloyd Garrison
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radical abolitionist, editor of The Liberator in 1831 which promoted immediate emancipation
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frontier journalism
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reached the West: The Indiana Gazette, the Texas Gazette, the Oregon Spectator, the Weekly Arizonian, Rocky Mountain News
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Samuel Clemens
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the most celebrated journalist to chronicle the frontier
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Frederick Douglas
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Self-educated slave 1847 edited an anti-slavery weekly, the North Star, the most important African American pre Civil War newspaper
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John B. Russwurm
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African American who co-founded Freedom’s Journal, the first African American newspaper, in New York City, 1827
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Reverend Samuel Cornish
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African American who co-founded Freedom’s Journal, the first African American newspaper, in New York City, 1827
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made newspapers affordable and available to everyone
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penny presses changed newspaper audiences how?
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in gossip columns and crime reporting
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the legacy of penny press continues today…
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yellow journalism
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intense newspaper competition bred….
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unions
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standardized and raised wages at many of the nation’s largest newspapers; created a sense of professionalism for journalists
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1950s, television
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decline of readership began in…with the invention of the…
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social causes of the 1960s: Vietnam War, civil rights movement, gay rights movement
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what briefly revived the alternative press in the 20th century?
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1970s
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the overall number of newspapers has declined since the ____.
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business and editorial divisions
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two ares of newspaper operations
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production, advertising, distribution, and administration
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the business side of newspapers handles…
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editor-in-chief, publisher, or both
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the editorial employees report to whom?
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everything you read in the paper: news and feature stories, editorials, columns, cartoons, photographs, online editions
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the editorial side of newspapers handles…
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national local high school sports site, highschoolsports.net
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Gannett launched a ______ site to try to attract younger readers
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wireless technology
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____ _______ has simplified field reporting.
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Internet
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newspapers are using the ______ to sell more of the information they gather
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satellite publishing
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____ _____ means national newspapers can publish regional editions
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Today, large corporations have bought up newspapers that were once family owned
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Today, instead of competing locally, national chains now compete with one another
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their ability to appeal to a shifting audience and meet growing competition
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The future of newspapers’ financial success depends on what two things?
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young people and women
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Today, he two groups dropping newspapers are ___ and ____.
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teenagers and women
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Today, newspapers have introduced features and special sections targeting ___ and ____.
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In cities with large Latino populations, newspapers have introduced Spanish-language editions; existing Spanish papers have expanded.
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2/3
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the average daily newspaper is what percent advertising?
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keeping the public informed, but staying profitable
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today, newspapers struggle with these two roles
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advertisers
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Today, some large newspapers distribute free editions in order to attract _____.

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