ch 29 revised

1 peptidoglycan 2 sporopollenin.
The structural integrity of bacteria is to 1.________ as the structural integrity of plant spores is to 2.________

charophytes
________ group is the most recent common ancestor of all land plants was probably similar to modern-day members

phragmoplast
tissues performing nuclear division without intervening cytokineses plant tissue should lack __________

charophytes and land plants
sporopollenin , chlorophyll a. cellulose, chlorophyll b are common to both _________ and _______ _________*

plantae
A number of characteristics are very similar between charophytes and members of the kingdom ________

charophytes Plantae.
chloroplast structure, cell plate formation during cytokinesis, sperm cell structure, ribosomal RNA nucleotide sequences ,are close evolutionary characteristics between __________and members of the kingdom ________

charophytes and land plants
glycolate oxidasean peroxisomal enzyme that is associated with photorespiration would be best to develop a test that will distinguish __________ and______ ________* from green algae.

mitosis protists and fungi.
In animal cells and in the meristem cells of land plants, the nuclear envelope disintegrates during 1________. This
disintegration does not occur in the cells of most 2_______and 3______

charophytes
_________is a group of organisms should feature mitosis most similar to that of land plants

embryos
On a field trip, a student in a marine biology class collects an organism that has differentiated organs, cell walls
of cellulose, and chloroplasts with chlorophyll a. Based on this description, the organism could be a brown
alga, a red alga, a green alga, a charophyte recently washed into the ocean from a freshwater or brackish water
source, or a land plant washed into the ocean. The presence of __________ definitively identify this organism as a land plant

apical meristem
if__________ is observed in an unidentified green organism, would make it unlikely to
be a charophyte

zygotes zygotes
Whereas the ________of charophytes may remain within maternal tissues during their initial development, one
should not expect to observe specialized placental transfer cells surrounding the ________

Plantae
________ taxon is essentially equivalent to the embryophytes

secondary compounds
________ ______* =protection from predators

cuticle
________=protection from desiccation

tracheids and phloem
_________ and ________ are the transport of water, minerals, and nutrients

animal predation
________ __________*was not a challenge for survival of the first land plants

adaptations
cuticles tracheids reduced gametophyte generation seeds are all ________ to life on land

apical meristem
Mitotic activity by the _________ __________* of a root makes increase of the above-ground stem.

alkaloids
________ is a secondary compound of embryophytes?

herbivory
the rise of ________ probably made the synthesis of secondary compounds most beneficial

Viridiplantae
_________ taxa includes the largest amount of genetic diversity among plantlike organisms

Bryophytes
________ have all of the following characteristics 1.multicellularity 2.specialized cells 3.tissues walled spores in sporangia a reduced, 4. dependent sporophyte

Bryophytes
________ dont have lignified vascular tissue

sporophytes.
Plant spores are produced directly by_________

archegonia
________ may temporarily contain sporophyte embryos.

gametangia
Both male and female bryophytes produce __________

1 cuticlerosette 2cellulose-synthesizing complexes 3 peroxisomes 4 phenolics
The leaflike appendages of moss gametophytes may be one- to two-cell-layers thick. 1.______ 2. _______ ________ _________ _______ 3. ________ 4. _______

bryophytes
a cellulose cell wall is a general characteristic of _______

bryophytes
chlorophylls a and b is a general characteristic of _______

bryophytes
being photosynthetic autotrophs is a general characteristic of _______

bryophytes
being eukaryotic is a general characteristic of _______

mosses
external water is required for fertilization is the life cycle of _________

mosses
flagellated sperm are produced is the life cycle of _________

mosses
antheridia and archegonia are produced by gametophytes is the life cycle of _________

mosses
the gametophyte generation is dominant is the life cycle of _________

false
the growing embryo gives rise to the gametophyte is true of false to the life cycles of mosses ?

rhizoids archegonia sporangia placental transfer cells
Bryophytes may feature all of the following at some time during their existence 1. ________ 2.________3.________4.________ _______ _________

spores
A fungal infection damages all peristomes, preventing them from performing their function. Which process
will be directly hindered as a result broadcast of __________

Rhizoids
_________ are not absorptive structures.

foot
_________ is a structure that transfers water and nutrients from a bryophyte gametophyte to a
bryophyte sporophyte

Bryophytes
__________ never formed forests (mats, yes, but not forests) because they lack lignified vascular tissue.

bryophyte
In __________ the mature sporophyte depend completely on the gametophyte for
nutrition

the appearance of its spore-producing structures
You are hiking in a forest and happen upon a plant featuring a central stemlike structure from which sprout
many, tiny, leaflike structures. _________ _________ _______ ______ _____ ________ ______ *distinguishes whether it
was a true moss, or a club moss?

1.vascular tissue 2. a waxy cuticle 3. stomata on leaves.
4.a branched sporophyte.
1. _________ ______* 2.________ _______ ______* 3.______ ___ _______ 4.________ ______ _______all helped seedless plants become better adapted to land

ferns.
flagellated sperm, xylem with tracheids, separate gametophyte and
sporophyte generations with the sporophyte dominant, and no seeds. This plant is probably most closely
related to ________

microphylls or megaphylls
You are hiking in a forest and come upon a mysterious plant, which you determine is either a lycophyte
sporophyte or a pterophyte sporophyte.
classify the plant whether it has __________or _________ would be most helpful in helping you correctly

increased spore production
A major change that occurred during the evolution of plants from their algal ancestors was the origin of a
branched sporophyte. What advantage would branched sporophytes provide in this stage of the life cycle?

monilophytes
Sporophylls can be found in __________

pine trees
__________ _________ *would not yet have been evolved in the forests that became coal
deposits

homosporous.
If a fern gametophyte is a hermaphrodite (that is, has both male and female gametangia on the same plant),
then it belongs to a species that is _________

sporopollenins
Besides oil, what other chemical should be detected in substantial amounts upon chemical analysis of these
small spheres?

sporophylls
Closer observation reveals that these small spheres are produced on tiny extensions of the stem, each of which
helps compose the strobilus. These small, spore-producing extensions of the stem are called __________

seedless vascular plants
Whole forests were dominated by large, seedless vascular plants during the Carboniferous period is true of ______ ________ ________*

early bryophytes
_________ _________* should have had gene sequences most similar to the charophyte that was the common ancestor
of the land plants?

Lycophyta Bryophyta ChlorophytaMonlophytes
flagellated (swimming) sperm are generally present in which groups? 1.______ 2._______ 3.________ 4.________

beneficial adaptation
decreased numbers of stomata, to maximize absorption of ever-decreasing levels of atmospheric CO2 is a __________ __________ regarding
the number of stomata per unit surface area

charophytes are the closest algal relatives of plants
similar sperm structure is evidence that__________

charophytes are the closest algal relatives of plants
similarities in cell wall formation during cell division is evidence that __________

charophytes are the closest algal relatives of plants
genetic similarities in chloroplasts is evidence that __________

charophytes are the closest algal relatives of plants
similarities in proteins that synthesize cellulose is evidence that __________

charophytes are the closest algal relatives of plants
similarities in chloroplast shape is not evidence that _________

charophyte algae
alternation of multicellular generations characteristic of plants is absent in their closest relatives, the __________ __________

the development of seeds
_________ _____ ________ _________*is not common to all phyla of vascular plants

vascular plants
1. alternation of generations 2. dominance of the diploid generation 3. xylem and phloem 4. the addition of lignin to cell wallsis common to all phyla of _______ ________

haploid spores
In plants________ __________are produced by meiosis

lycophytes
Microphylls are characteristic of which types of plants __________

fern
___________ is a land plant that produces flagellated sperm and has a sporophyte -dominated life
cycle

They increase the surface area for photosynthesis.
What is the evolutionary significance of megaphylls?

monilophytes
Sori can be found in ?

stomata
What structures allow plants to readily take up carbon dioxide from the atmosphere?

diffusion through all cells
Water is brought into mosses primarily by what?

algae
Plants have a waxy, waterproof cuticle, and _________ do not.

megaphylls
In sporophyte ferns, the leaves are _____.

traits shared by land plants and their closest relatives among the algae
Structure of flagellated sperm
-Formation of a phragmoplast
-Rings of cellulose-synthesizing proteins in the plasma membrane

on moist soil
Where would you find a fern gametophyte?

life cycle of bryophyte
A moist environment is required for sexual reproduction is the life cycle of

peristome
Typically, the upper part of a bryophyte capsule that contains the spores features a ring of interlocking, tooth-like structures known as the ________

the sporangia
To examine meiosis in ferns, you would study _____ ______

Desiccation
In moving to land, plants had to overcome __________

non plant organisms
In plants, the haploid and diploid stages are both multicellular which is a key difference between alternation of generations in plants and sexual reproduction in _______ ______ ________

mitosis
gametes produced by bryophytes By __________of gametophyte cells

Monilophyta
Equisetum is a genus in the phylum __________?

sporopollenin
algae and plants that possess ________ Reproductive cells are more resistant to desiccation.

vascular tissue
A major division in plant systematics is based on whether a particular species has __________.

It is a sporophyte.
The “dots” on the underside of a fern frond are spore cases; therefore, what is true of the plant to which the frond belongs?

mosses
The gametophyte stage of the plant life cycle is most conspicuous in __________.

Carboniferous
During what period did seedless vascular plants form extensive forests of tall trees?

land plants
Walled spores produced in sporangia is a trait unique to _____ _______

land plants
The embryophytes are __________.

Sphagnum peatlands
-Low pH
-Low temperature
-Phenolic compounds produced by Sphagnum
-Low oxygen
are characteristics of ?

cuticle
The development of the __________ prevents plants from drying out and protects them from microbes.

a multicellular haploid organism and a multicellular diploid organism
Alternation of generations in all land plants is between __________.

phloem
_________ function in Distribution of sugars, amino acids, and other organic products

Megasporangia microsporangia
____________produce spores that develop into female gametocytes, whereas _________produce spores that develop into male gametophytes.

Fern gametophytes
__________ ____________ are free-living, multicellular organisms

sperm
The antheridia of mosses produce________

Charophytes
Evidence suggests that land plants arose from within which protist lineage?