CH. 13- EUROPEAN MIDDLE AGES STUDY GUIDE

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Chivalry
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A code of behavior for knights in medieval Europe, stressing ideals such as courage, loyalty, and devotion
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Tournaments
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contest where knights could fight; useful in helping knights train for war, Mock battles
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Knights
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were mounted horsemen who pledged to defend their lords’ lands in exchange for fiefs.
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Troubadours
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A medieval poet and musician who traveled from place to place, entertaining people with songs of courtly love
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Clovis
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5th century Frankish leader of a large kingdom who converted to Christianity
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Benedict
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At 15, He left school and hiked up to the Sabine Hills, where he lived in a cave as a hermit. After learning about his deep religious conviction, a group of monks persuaded him to lead their monastery.
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Scholastica
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Benedict’s twin sister. Didn’t go to Rome, but sought monastic life, followed God at younger age than Benedict, formed a community not far from Monte Cassino of women, met with brother sometimes to talk about religion, begged for her brother to stay the night one night, and when he said no she prayed and a storm broke out and he couldn’t leave. Patron saint of nuns and children. Taught nuns to read/write to understand Scriptures.
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Serf
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(Middle Ages) a person who is bound to the land and owned by the feudal lord
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Tithe
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Church tax
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Charlemagne and his achievements
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\”charles the great\” aided the pope, invaded Germany and defeated saxons. pope declared him emperor.set up courts. started schools. supported learning and art in the middle ages.
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Fief
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An estate granted by a lord to a vassal in exchange for service and loyalty
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Canon Law
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the Church’s own body of laws; this law applied to religious teachings, the behavior of the clergy, and even marriages and morals
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Manor
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A large estate, often including farms and a village, ruled by a lord.
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Monastery
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A community in which monks lead lives devoted to religion.
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Tournament
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A mock battle between groups of knights
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Excommunication
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Banishment from the church
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Feudalism
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A political system in which nobles are granted the use of lands that legally belong to their king, in exchange for their loyalty, military service, and protection of the people who live on the land
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Charles Martel
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Carolingian monarch of Franks; responsible for defeating Muslims in battle of Tours in 732; ended Muslim threat to western Europe.
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Germanic Tribes
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Nomadic groups that invaded the Roman Empire from the North and East. They caused the fall of Rome.
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Vikings
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Invaders of Europe that came from Scandinavia
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Treaty of Verdun
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843 Treaty that ended power struggle of Charlemagne’s 3 sons after his death and split Franks into 3 kingdoms
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Feudalism and its groups of people
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King>church official, noble>peasants
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Eleanor of Aquitane
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daughter to duke of aquitane; inherited her dads lands after his death; wife to king louis vii and king henry ii; active politician during her time as wife. \”Courtly Love\” more respect for women
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Disagreement between Pope Gregory VII and Emperor Henry IV
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Henry IV wanted the pope to resign, but the pope excommunicated Henry IV
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Long-term effect of ongoing conflicts among German princes and between the pope
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Germany did not become a unified nation-state during the Middle Ages.
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Lay investiture
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A ceremony in which kings and nobles appointed church officials
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Sacraments
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Sacred rituals of the Roman Catholic Church
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HOW DID FEUDALISM DURING THE MIDDLE AGES MAKE AN INSECURE LIFE MORE SECURE? (essay*)
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feudalism always gaurunteed a job for you and a home you could live in if you were working on the land, manor became the center of economic life that lords protected form raiders. Created a small community that had everything provided for them. {insecuritities king-food, protection, loyalty, taxes; knights- shelter, feif, food; peasants-shelter, protection, food} (1st P- define feudalism, 2nd talk about king, 3rd talk about knights, 4th talk about peasants, 5th conclusion) [thesis-feaudalism allowed people in the middle ages to feel secure}

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