Cell Biology Study Guide

Cell theory
the theory that all living things are made of cells

eukaryote
an organism with cells characteristic of all life forms (except primitive microorganisms like bacteria) these cells have a nuclei

prokaryote
a cell that doesn’t have a nuclei

cell
the basic building blocks of all living things – a microorganism within all living things

cell membrane
the part of the cell that lets things in and out of the cell

cell wall
similar to a normal wall – provides protection and support for the cell

ribosome
produces proteins from old materials for the cell (protein production factories)

mitochondria
this is the “powerhouse” of the cell — it produces energy for the cell

nucleus
holds genetic material and manages activities within the cell

chloroplast
it captures the energy from sunlight and converts it into energy

proteins
substances that help build and maintain cells

enzymes
protein substances that speed up chemical reactions

nucleic acids
very long organic compounds made up of carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, and phosphurous, contain instructions that cells need to carry out all the functions of life

carbohydrates
the starches and sugars present in foods (and cells)

lipids
fats and oils

element
a pure chemical substance that consists of one type of atom

compound
a substance that is made up of two or more elements

organic compound
any compound of carbon and another element

inorganic compound
A compound that does not contain carbon

diffusion
when molecules “even out” or get dispersed evenly

osmosis
diffusion of water specifically (through a membrane that lets through only certain things)

passive transport
when chemicals move without energy — to even out

active transport
when chemicals move with energy — to “undiffuse”

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