In the Caribbean and specifically in Jamaica. the most recognized linguistic communication for communicating is that linguistic communication left to us by our European colonizers. The pidgin that developed from the contact of the African slaves and European Masterss subsequently developed into their ain single linguistic communications ( or Creoles ) . They ( the elite in society ) shun these linguistic communications as inappropriate or inadequate for public and sometimes even private usage. This impression is widely accepted by even those who can talk nil else but the Creole. It has fed belief that the usage of the Creole. in Jamaica’s instance “patois” . makes one inferior to the users of Jamaican Standard English.
This research serves to educate the heads of these “elite” and those non so fortunate but have adapted that manner of thought. It besides serves to inform them of the grounds non to doubt the equality of the Creole to the official linguistic communication. to take the idea of the Creole being inferior or bad linguistic communication. and to raise a sense of pride in one’s “nation language” ( term used by the Barbadian poet Braithwaite ) .
? Do immature people consider patois as bad linguistic communication?
? Do people see Jamaican Creole as Jamaican Standard English’s equal?
? Has the linguistic communication prejudice-taught to us by our European colonisers- been passed on to this present coevals and by what grade?
? Can prejudice be prevented from being perpetuated for coming old ages?
? Indispensible- Absolutely necessary ; vitally necessary
? Mother tongue- One’s native linguistic comm...
unication ; the linguistic communication learned by kids and passed from one coevals to the following
? Culture- All the cognition and values shared by a society
? Creole- A female parent lingua that originates from contact between two linguistic communications
? Prejudice- A fondness that prevents nonsubjective consideration of an issue or state of affairs
? Dialect- The use or vocabulary that is characteristic of a specific group of people
Creole harmonizing to the Dictionary. com is a pidgin that has become the native linguistic communication of a address community. . Language is the spoken or written signifier or manner of pass oning in a society. “The female parent lingua is indispensable in all signifiers of advancement of a community: psychological and rational balance of its members. If we continue to coerce the kid. Martiniquais. to subject to a life style in Gallic at school and a Creole 1 at place. we will reenforce the procedure of corporate irresponsibleness blighting the Martinique community … a people who is reduced to pattern its linguistic communication merely at place is condemned to confront the decease of its civilization. of which this will merely be the mirror contemplation of an otherwise existent torment. ” Edouard Glissant. composing about Creole in Martinique. We can encompass this statement made by Edouard Glissant in the wider Caribbean and even more clearly Jamaica. “Many sociologists argue. in fact. that without linguistic communication. there can be no civilization at all. ” harmonizing to Lisa J. Mcintyre in her book. The Practical Skeptic Core Concepts in Sociology. 3rd edition. This decidedly backs Edouard Glissant’s statement
“condemned to confront the decease of its culture’ . Often times. our ain idiom is pushed to the dorsum burner and scoffed at. This may non look like a large issue but it helps to destruct our civilization.
“We maintain cognition from the bulk of people by denying them cognition in the linguistic communication they use. There is something really incorrect in stating to a human being. ‘Let me cut off your legs. and I will give you unreal 1s. which will be perfect. ’ I’m stating allow us walk on our ain two feet…” says. Ngugi wa Thiong’o. Kenyan author who initiated literature in his native Gikuyu lingua. Language is about individuality. harmonizing to Linton Kwesi Johnson in Jamaica Gleaner. 2006/10/15. He says. “For me. one of the specifying features of poesy is genuineness of voice. and my natural voice is the ordinary spoken Jamaican linguistic communication. ”
Stephanie Tame-Durrleman in Jamaica Gleaner. 2007/12/16 in the article “The Unique Jamaican Creole” states that. One thing that became apparent to her in clip was that we as a people ( Jamaicans ) often unconsciously perpetuate inherited and useless biass if non forced to abandon them. She farther explained that she has learnt from her surveies at the University of Geneva that “ Jamaican Creole is non a ‘corruption’ of a linguistic communication. but a ‘language’ in itself …” . In other words. it is non broken or bad English.
Few individuals apparently realize that what we now embrace as “Standard English” was in its babyhood one of 100s of the regional idioms spoken in England. and like our Patois. went through similar rites of transition before a individual signifier emerged. or was selected. as the criterion. What our lingual experts have been pressing all along is. we are now traveling towards bilingual position. This chance horrifies some of us to whom Standard English is inviolable. The common “patois” ( as an germinating linguistic communication in its ain right ) is seen by some as a menace to the saving of “accepted” Standard English. Indeed. the bias non disguised when Standard English is referred to as “proper” English.
Figure 4: Language Awareness ( JLU. 2005. p. 8 )
This tabular array evidences that Jamaican Standard English ( English ) is much more often attributed to positive characteristics than Jamaican Patois ( Patois ) is. Apparently. the respondents of this study see talkers of Jamaican Standard English as more intelligent. more educated. and as holding more money than Jamaican Patois talkers have. First. this in parts. certain plenty. reflects the socio-structural world. since Jamaican Standard English is the official linguistic communication of Jamaica and is the classical linguistic communication of the political leaders and establishments of higher instruction. Second. the study clearly shows traditional biass like the connexion between intelligence and linguistic communication usage
. Regardless of these clear feelings. “it appears that since the independency of Jamaica in 1962 there has been a important alteration in attitudes towards Jamaican Patois. Increasing lingual research on Creoles. the ensuing constitution of Creoles as linguistic communications. and the rise of positive attitudes towards Jamaican Patois. as a agency of cultural
individuality. socio-cultural look. and an economic factor. well lifted the image of Jamaican Patois ( californium. MoEY & A ; C. 2001. p. 8 ) . In add-on. it contributed to a force per unit area on the province to suit the usage of Jamaican Patois in a wider scope of official contexts ( californium. Devonish. 2008. p. 629 ) . e. g. in school or tribunal ( californium. Francis. 2008a – study on the preparation of Jamaican Patois translators for aid before the tribunal ) . ”
Data Collection Beginnings
The Researcher used two major Datas Collection beginnings discussed further down. During the informations aggregation. the research worker was cognizant of the legal and ethical concerns sing aggregation and even analysis. There was privateness refering topics and informations and consent sought from topics.
Sixty ( 60 ) Persons were issued Questionnaires. Those to whom questionnaires were given had a hebdomad in which to finish it. At the terminal of that week- the period February 18 to February 24. 2011-. lone 50 ( 5o ) questionnaires were collected. These questionnaires served as the majority of The Researcher’s primary beginnings of informations. In add-on. observations were made based on individuals ; attitude to the linguistic communication. linguistic communication registries used and by whom and how frequently. These observations were made in the schoolroom. on the coach. on the street. at place. and at church.
The Researcher’s secondary beginnings came from Gleaner articles. texts and other books. The web was a rather helpful beginning but wisdom was used in the information taken. Communication Notes from in Lower Six Form was besides referred to. The Researcher even visited the Kingston Parish Library.
In decision. The Researcher did everything in his power to remain on the ethical and legal side of aggregation and analysis. Be assured that the information presented in the research is all true and dependable.
Presentation of Findingss
“This chart shows the age age
groups of those persons
Who were given questionnaires. ”
Figure 1: Shows the age groupings of the 50 Figure 2: shows their sex
Persons to whom Questionnaires were issued.
Figure 4: Shows the sector in which the 50 individuals who got questionnaires work in.
Figure 3: Shows the employment position of persons.
Figure 6: Should Patois be used for direction in schools.
Figure 5: Shows what persons think of slang ;
if it is a slave linguistic communication.
Figure 7: Shows what persons think ; Figure 8: shows how frequently persons
Patois should be used informally merely. Speak slang.
Figure 9: Slang is a mark of illiteracy. Figure 10: Shows how frequently persons
Speak Standard English
Figure 11 Shows if Patois is easier to talk figure 12: shows which makes persons than Standard English Feel more comfy
Figure 13: Shows ; slang Should go jamaica’s first linguistic communication
Interpretation of Findingss
Fifty individuals received questionnaires 22 ( 22 ) males and 28 ( 28 ) females. The larger age groups were persons in their teens and mid-twentiess ; which totalled more than half ( 56 % ) . This is of import. as these are the immature people. Their position on this affair is most of import. as they will take our society in the coming old ages. The figure of
pupils and the figure of employed interviewees both totalled 22 with the unemployed totalling merely six ( 6 ) . this is interesting as six ( 6 ) of the interviewees were above the age of 50 ( 50 ) really near to retirement age. The Researcher has grounds to believe that five of those are genuinely retired go forthing merely one individual out of a occupation for whatever ground.
Sixty-four per centum of those employed admitted to working in the private sector. When asked if they believe that slang is a slave linguistic communication merely one individual was inexorable that it was. This individual stated that they strongly agreed that slang is a slave linguistic communication. Thirteen of the respondents merely agreed that it was while in contrast 14 disagreed with 22 earnestly denouncing that thought stating they strongly disagree. The usage of slang in schools for direction seems to do some contention.
Most of the respondents strongly disagreed but non by a far border with others strongly holding that. it should be so. A bantam few disagreed with the others possibly 10 or so agreeing. Should Patois be used informally merely had 36 % strongly differing with that gesture and 22 % disagreeing. This leaves a entire difference of 16 % when compared to the 2 % that strongly agrees and the 40 % that simply agrees with slang staying in the informal sphere.
A huge bulk disagrees with the suggestion that slang is a mark of illiteracy. The greater figure of respondents strongly disagreed with merely one strongly holding. Ten ( 10 ) individuals admitted to talking Creole “occasionally” with 32 persons claiming that they speak it rather “often” and merely 8 stating they “always” do. When asked the reverse inquiry 18 say they on occasion speak Jamaican Standard English 21 say the frequently do with merely 9 claiming that its ever used by them.
When they were to state whether slang is easier to talk than Standard English. there were no reserves so an country chart was used to show this. As expected by The Researcher an absolute bulk strongly agrees that slang was easier 22 and 21 holding that it is. The staying seven ( 7 ) individuals of the 50 who received questionnaires disagreed and strongly differ six ( 6 ) and one ( 1 ) severally. The Researcher must state he was blown off by this 1. 26 of the individuals who were interviewed felt more comfy with Standard English. Twenty-four ( 24 ) admitted that slang filled that col. With a bantam difference of two ( 2 ) . it is amazing that more people find patois easier but experience more comfy with Standard English.
The consequences to this last inquiry are instead fascinating. Should patois go Jamaica’s first linguistic communication? Four individuals strongly disagreed. 18 merely differ go forthing a sum of 22 ( 22 ) persons. Fifteen ( 15 ) individuals strongly agreed to this impression and 13 merely agreed doing a amount of 28 individuals.
Discussion of Findingss
The Researcher has found this research to be rather reviewing in the information it brought away. from the
literature reappraisal. the presentation and the reading of findings. This research has opened The Researcher’s apprehension of the linguistic communication state of affairs in Jamaica.
Some commonalties found between the literature reappraisal and the information findings. For case in the rating of which linguistic communication ( patois/JAMAICAN STANDARD ENGLISH ) the respondents felt more comfy with most of the respondents say they felt more comfy with the Jamaican Standard English which would be described- by “Language Education Policy in the tenseness between Jamaican Standard English and Jamaican Patois” – as a traditional linguistic communication bias passed down. However. these same respondents said that slang is easier to talk than JAMAICAN STANDARD ENGLISH in Figure 11. This is because harmonizing to Stephanie Tame-Durrleman in Jamaica Gleaner. 2007/12/16 “ one thing that became apparent to her in clip was that we as a people ( Jamaicans ) often unconsciously perpetuate inherited and useless biass if non forced to abandon them”
In the informations findings a huge bulk of respondents declared that slang is non a slave linguistic communication this fact can be supported by Stephanie Tame-Durrleman ( 2007 ) in Jamaica Gleaner. who explained that she has learnt from her surveies at the University of Geneva that “ Jamaican Creole is non a ‘corruption’ of a linguistic communication. but a ‘language’ in itself …” . In other words. it is non broken or bad English neither is it merely simply “slave language” .
In Figure 7. we find that 58 % of the respondents disagreed with slang being a slave linguistic communication and 42 % agree that it is. This determination correlates so good with this statement from the ; Language Education Policy in the tenseness between Jamaican Standard English and Jamaican Patois: quoted from the literature review- “it appears that since the independency of Jamaica in 1962 there has been a important alteration in attitudes towards JAMAICAN PATOIS. Increasing lingual research on Creoles. the ensuing constitution of Creoles as linguistic communications. and the rise of positive attitudes towards JAMAICAN PATOIS. ”
The Researcher would wish to cast visible radiation on one difference found between the Literature Review and the Data Findings. The table shown in the literature reappraisal formulated in ( 2005 ) shows that at that clip. out of a sample group of 1000 73 individuals ( 7. 7 % ) thought that the talkers of Jamaican slang were more intelligent. 550 ( 57. 8 % ) thought the standard English talkers were more intelligent. When my research was done with a group of 50 ( 50 ) individuals a huge bulk disagreed that the usage of slang was a mark of illiteracy. My research was done six ( 6 ) old ages subsequently so it may be argued that things has truly changed since. In add-on it could besides be argued that my mark group of 50 ( 50 ) is smaller than the 1000 ( 1000 ) targeted in the earlier research.
Decision Restrictions and Recommendations
In decision we find that Jamaican Creole is in no sense a bad linguistic communication or broken English. It is seen as such by those to whom the
plantation bias has been passed down. Many individuals today are going more comfy with the linguistic communication ; it is spoken on bothe formal and informal occasions. Eg. The Manatt committee of question. it’s noticed that those lawyers and politicians at sometime switched to the basilect. So people today from all walks of life liberally use the linguistic communication
There were many restrictions in seeking to acquire this piece together. The Researcher faced jobs of disbursal ; bus menu. printing questionnaires. cyberspace coffeehouse. and publishing the undertaking itself. When the research worker sought individuals to make full out the questionnaires many refused. and some ne'er returned it. The research worker travelled to different institutions- UWI. UTECH- in order to acquire the position of those erudite individuals.
I would urge nevertheless. that more qualitative and quantitative research be done. Peoples should be taught -especially immature people-
Lisa J. McIntyre. ( 2006 ) . The Practical Skeptic Core Concepts in Sociology ( Third edition ) . McGraw-Hill. Phillip A. Butcher.
Cassidy. F. G. . 1971a. Jamaica Talk. Three Hundred Old ages of the English Language in Jamaica. Basingstoke/London: Macmillan Education Ltd.
Cayol. D. . 2008. Patois or Jamaican Creole? Report in The Jamaica Gleaner. June 29. 2008. Online: hypertext transfer protocol: //www. jamaica-gleaner. com/gleaner/20080629/news/news4. hypertext markup language ( 03. 05. 2010 )
JLU. 2005. The Language Attitude Survey of Jamaica. Data Analysis. Jamaican Language Unit. Department of Language. Linguistics & A ; Philosophy. Faculty of Humanities & A ; Education. University of the West Indies. Mona.
Online: hypertext transfer protocol: //www. Anglesey. uwi. edu/dllp/jlu/projects/Report % 20for % 20Language % 20Attitude % 20Survey % 20of % 20Jamaica. pdf ( 01. 05. 2010 )
Angus Stevenson. ( 2002 ) . The Little Oxford English Dictionary ( eight edition ) . United States. Oxford University Press Inc. . New York
Linton Kwesi Johnson. ( 2006 ) . Language as individuality. Jamaica Gleaner. 2006/10/15
Hubert Devonish. ( 2002 ) . Language rights. justness and the fundamental law. Jamaica Gleaner. 2002/01/27
Stephanie Tame-Durrleman. ( 2007 ) . Researching the alone Jamaican Creole. Jamaica Gleaner. 2007/12/16
Geof Brown. ( 2008 ) . Patois as linguistic communication or broken English. Jamaica Observer. 2008/7/04
Daniel Jettka. ( 2010 ) . The linguistic communication state of affairs of Jamaica. Language Education Policy in the tenseness between Jamaican Standard English and Jamaican Patois Hilary Term. Dr. John Harris
- Cuba essays
- Jamaica essays
- Puerto Rico essays
- Haiti essays
- Second Language essays
- English Language essays
- Semiotics essays
- Dialect essays
- Sign Language essays
- Spanish Language essays
- French Language essays
- Grammatical Person essays
- Language Education essays
- Second Language Acquisition essays
- Teaching English As A Foreign Language essays
- Verb essays
- Gesture essays
- Afghanistan essays
- Africa essays
- America essays
- Arizona essays
- Asia essays
- Australia essays
- Caribbean essays
- City essays
- Developing Country essays
- Dubai essays
- Earthquake essays
- Europe essays
- Fracking essays
- Georgia essays
- Middle East essays
- Natural Disaster essays
- New Zealand essays
- North Korea essays
- South Korea essays
- Thailand essays
- Third World essays
- Town essays
- Travel essays
- Agriculture essays
- Albert einstein essays
- Animals essays
- Archaeology essays
- Bear essays
- Biology essays
- Birds essays
- Butterfly essays
- Cat essays
- Charles Darwin essays