Campbell Essential Biology Chapter 18 Test

Ecology is the study of ______.

A) life
B) interactions between organisms and their environments
C) human effects on the environment
D) interactions between humans and other species

B) interactions between organisms and their environments

Which of the following is abiotic?

A) a protist
B) a plant
C) a rock
D) a fungus

C) a rock

If you study how two species of finches compete for food, you are trying to answer a question about _______.

A) ecosystems ecology
B) community ecology
C) organismal ecology
D) population ecology

B) community ecology

What level of ecology is concerned with the adaptations of individuals?

A) organismal
B) population
C) community
D) ecosystem

A) organismal

What level of ecology is concerned with groups of individuals of the same species?

A) community
B) organism
C) population
D) ecosystem

C) population

What level of ecology is concerned with groups of individuals of different species?

A) community
B) population
C) ecosystem
D) organism

A) community

What is a population?

A) a community as well as all the abiotic factors in a particular geographic area
B) a group of organisms living in a particular geographic area
C) a group of organisms of the same species living in a particular geographic area
D) all of the organisms of a species existing at a particular time

C) a group of organisms of the same species living in a particular geographic area

Which of these is a community?

A) all of the organisms living in your home
B) all of the Staphlococcus aureus (a species of bacteria) living on your skin
C) all of the people living in your neighborhood
D) all of the nut grass (considered a weed) in my backyard

A) all of the organisms living in your home

What level of ecology is concerned with both the biotic and abiotic aspects of an environment?

A) organism
B) ecosystem
C) population
D) community

B) ecosystem

Which of the following organisms are not ultimately dependent on sunlight for energy?

A) marine species that live in the aphotic zone
B) predators
C) species that live in hydrothermal vent habitats
D) bacteria that feed on dead organic matter

C) species that live in hydrothermal vent habitats

Aquatic organisms ______.

A) may experience problems with water balance
B) have a waxy coating to prevent water loss
C) never find light to be in short supply
D) typically have a plentiful supply of nitrogen

A) may experience problems with water balance

Which nutrients often limit the distribution and abundance of photosynthetic organisms?

a) carbon dioxide and nitrogen
B) water and carbon dioxide
C) nitrogen and phosphorus
D) water and oxygen

C) nitrogen and phosphorus

What term applies to the physical and physiological changes experienced by astronauts who spend months in space?

A) adaptation
B) accreditation
C) cosmosation
D) acclimation

D) acclimation

Which of the following is a behavioral response to environmental variability?

A) acclimation
B) migrating to a different location
C) endothermy
D) “flagging” by trees

B) migrating to a different location

In an aquatic ecosystem, what name is given to the region where photosynthesis can occur?

A) pelagic zone
B) photic zone
C) benthic zone
D) aphotic zone

B) photic zone

Wetlands ______.

A) include rivers, streams, ponds, and lakes
B) are found in the intertidal zone
C) are an example of a marine biome
D) are important in improving water quality

D) are important in improving water quality

What are estuaries?

A) regions where ocean meets land
B) a transition area between a river and the ocean
C) a type of freshwater biome
D) areas near the start of a river

B) a transition area between a river and the ocean

Which of these biomes is one of the most biologically productive of all biomes?

A) open oceans
B) temperate grasslands
C) estuaries
D) coniferous forests

C) estuaries

What name is given to the region where sea meets land?

A) pelagic realm
B) benthic realm
C) intertidal zone
D) aphotic zone

C) intertidal zone

What name is given to the open ocean?

A) benthic realm
B) photic zone
C) pelagic realm
D) intertidal zone

C) pelagic realm

In what part of the ocean are phytoplankton found?

A) intertidal zone
B) aphotic zone
C) benthic realm
D) pelagic realm

D) pelagic realm

What name is given to the seafloor?

A) pelagic realm
B) intertidal zone
C) aphotic zone
D) benthic realm

D) benthic realm

The temperate zones ______.

A) are the zones closest to the equator
B) are relatively wet
C) are relatively dry
D) have the coolest climates on Earth

B) are relatively wet

Which of the following can moderate climate by absorbing heat when the air is warm and releasing heat when the air is cold?

A) mountains
B) clouds
C) oceans
D) glaciers

C) oceans

Water-storing plants and deeply-rooted shrubs are plants that characterize ______.

A) chaparral
B) deserts
C) tropical forests
D) savanna

B) deserts

The Sahara Desert and the Negev Desert belong to the same ______.

A) abiota
B) community
C) biome
D) biota

C) biome

Long, snowy winters as well as evergreen trees such as pine and fir are found in ______.

A) temperate broadleaf forest
B) chaparral
C) coniferous forest
D) temperate grasslands

C) coniferous forest

______ are the dominant herbivores of savanna ecosystems.

A) Buffalo
B) Insects
C) Antelopes
D) Zebras

B) Insects

What is one important difference between savannas and temperate grasslands?

A) Savannas have very fertile soil
B) Savannas only rarely experience fires
C) Savannas have trees
D) Savannas are inhabited by grazing mammals

C) Savannas have trees

Which of these biomes is maintained by fire?

A) temperate deciduous forest
B) savanna and temperate grassland
C) desert and chaparral
D) chaparral and savanna

D) chaparral and savanna

Permafrost, or permanently frozen subsoil, characterizes _____.

A) coniferous forest
B) chaparral
C) temperate deciduous forest
D) tundra

D) tundra

Most of the temperate grassland in North America has been converted to ______.

A) suburbs
B) cities
C) farmland
D) national parks

C) farmland

Water moves from land to the atmosphere through _____.

A) evaporation and precipitation
B) transpiration and evaporation
C) precipitation only
D) transpiration only

B) transpiration and evaporation

With regard to the environment as a whole, when is the worst time to apply pesticide to your lawn?

A) when it is raining, or is about to rain
B) when it is cold, or is about to get cold
C) at the same time you apply fertilizer
D) at night

A) when it is raining, or is about to rain

What fraction of Earth’s surface has been altered by human use?

A) 50%
B) 75%
C) 95%
D) 25%

B) 75%

The greenhouse effect causes an increase in global temperatures. This increase is primarily due to ______.

A) CO2 and other greenhouse gases slowing the escape of heat from Earth
B) the loss of ozone that trapped cooling UV radiation in the atmosphere
C) CO2 and other greenhouse gases slowing the escape of UV radiation from Earth
D) CO2 and other greenhouse gases allowing more solar radiation to penetrate Earth’s surface

A) CO2 and other greenhouse gases slowing the escape of heat from Earth

Temperature increases due to global warming have been greatest _____.

A) in the tropics
B) in deserts
C) in the sea
D) close to the poles

D) close to the poles

The effect of deforestation has been to ______.

A) increase the amount of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere
B) increase the rate of carbon dioxide production through cellular respiration
C) decrease the amount of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere
D) increase the rate at which carbon dioxide is incorporated into organic material

A) increase the amount of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere

In the oceans, global warming has ______.

A) benefited corals
B) decreased the amount of oxygen available
C) made the water more acidic
D) made the water more basic

C) made the water more acidic

Which of the following is not a result of global warming?

A) decreasing sea levels.
B) changes in the breeding seasons of some species.
C) shifts in the ranges of some species.
D) melting permafrost.

A) decreasing sea levels.

Which of the following actions would increase your carbon footprint?

A) reusing or recycling items
B) walking instead of driving
C) eating more beef and less chicken
D) eating more vegetables and less meat

C) eating more beef and less chicken

Examine the figure below. Which part of Earth receives the greatest intensity of solar radiation?

A) equator
B) Tropic of Cancer and Tropic of Capricorn
C) all parts of Earth receive the same intensity of solar rAdiation.
D) North and South Poles

A) equator

Examine the figure below. Phytoplankton live in the _____.

A) benthic zone
B) aphotic zone
C) photic zone and aphotic zone
D) photic zone

D) photic zone

Examine the figure below. Globally, the largest amount of water moves from ______.

A) the atmosphere to land by precipitation
B) land to the atmosphere by evaporation and transpiration
C) the oceans to the atmosphere by evaporation
D) land to the oceans by surface and groundwater runoff

C) the oceans to the atmosphere by evaporation

Salmon eggs hatch in freshwater streams and, during the first year of their life, the young salmon migrate up to 1,000 km to the ocean. They spend varying amounts of time in the ocean (ranging up to five years), where they feed and grow, rapidly acquiring more than 95% of their biomass during this period. During the summer of their maturing year, they begin the long journey back to their home streams where they spawn. Although it is still uncertain how salmon navigate back to their spawning grounds, current hypotheses suggest that they have a highly developed sense of smell. At the spawning grounds, females use their tails to form a hollow cavity where they lay up to 8,000 eggs. The male fertilizes the eggs, and both adults typically die soon thereafter.

The physiological response that allows salmon to survive in fresh water, then in salt water, and then fresh water again is an example of ______.

A) a behavioral response
B) evolution
C) an anatomical response
D) acclimation

D) acclimation

Salmon eggs hatch in freshwater streams and, during the first year of their life, the young salmon migrate up to 1,000 km to the ocean. They spend varying amounts of time in the ocean (ranging up to five years), where they feed and grow, rapidly acquiring more than 95% of their biomass during this period. During the summer of their maturing year, they begin the long journey back to their home streams where they spawn. Although it is still uncertain how salmon navigate back to their spawning grounds, current hypotheses suggest that they have a highly developed sense of smell. At the spawning grounds, females use their tails to form a hollow cavity where they lay up to 8,000 eggs. The male fertilizes the eggs, and both adults typically die soon thereafter.

At different times in their lives, salmon can be found in all of the following except ______.

A) the pelagic realm
B) a chaparral
C) a freshwater biome
D) an estuary

B) a chaparral

What is a population?

A) a group of individuals of a single species that occupy the same general area and all the abiotic factors that affect them
B) a group of individuals of a single species that occupy the same general area
C) a group of organisms that occupy the same general area
D) all of the organisms of a single species existing at a particular time

B) a group of individuals of a single species that occupy the same general area

Which of these is a characteristic of Type I survivorship?

A) low survivorship for the very young
B) most individuals survive to older age intervals
C) survivorship is constant over the lifespan
D) survivorship is high for the few individuals that survive to a certain age

B) most individuals survive to older age intervals

Type I survivorship curves are typical of species that exhibit ______.

A) many offspring and good parental care
B) an intermediate number of offspring and an intermediate level of parental care
C) many offspring and poor parental care
D) few offspring and good parental care

D) few offspring and good parental care

Which of these best describes Type II survivorship?

A) high survivorship for the very young
B) survivorship is constant over the lifespan
C) most individuals survive to older age intervals
D) survivorship is high for the few individuals that survive to a certain age

B) survivorship is constant over the lifespan

Which of these best describes Type III survivorship?

A) most individuals survive to older age intervals
B) high survivorship for the very young
C) survivorship is constant over the lifespan
D) survivorship is high for the few individuals that survive to a certain age

D) survivorship is high for the few individuals that survive to a certain age

Opportunistic species typically ______.

A) exhibit a Type I survivorship curve
B) are very long-living
C) reach sexual maturity slowly
D) have a large number of offspring

D) have a large number of offspring

Species that exhibit an equilibrial life history typically ______.

A) exhibit a Type III survivorship curve
B) exhibit a Type II survivorship curve
C) have a large number of offspring
D) have long lives

D) have long lives

If there are 500 oak trees in a forest covering 50 square kilometers then the population density is

A) 50 trees per square kilometer
B) 5 trees per square kilometer
C) 100 trees per square kilometer
D) 10 trees per square kilometer

D) 10 trees per square kilometer

In an ideal, unlimited environment, a population’s growth follows a(n) ______ model.

A) hypergeometric
B) geometric
C) exponential
D) logistic

C) exponential

In an ideal, unlimited environment, what shape does a population’s growth curve most closely resemble?

A) ∪
B) ∧
C) J
D) S

C) J

If a population’s growth rate decreases as the population size approaches carrying capacity, the population’s growth follows a(n) ______ model.

A) logistic
B) hypergeometric
C) geometric
D) exponential

A) logistic

In a population that is following a logistic growth pattern, what shape does the population’s growth curve most closely resemble?

A) S
B) J
C) ∪
D) ∧

A) S

______ is the maximum population size that a particular habitat can support.

A) Carrying capacity
B) Crash point
C) Intrinsic rate of increase
D) Intrinsic population size

A) Carrying capacity

According to the logistic growth model, what happens to a population when the size of the population reaches carrying capacity?

A) The growth rate remains unchanged.
B) The population crashes.
C) The population begins to decrease in size.
D) The growth rate is zero.

D) The growth rate is zero.

Competition among individuals of the same species is ______ competition.

A) interspecific
B) intraspecific
C) extraspecific
D) endospecific

B) intraspecific

Which of these factors operates in a density-dependent manner?

A) flood
B) blizzard
C) volcanic eruption
D) food supply

D) food supply

Over time, the populations of most species ______.

A) increase rapidly, crash, and never recover
B) fluctuate
C) continuously increase
D) exhibit boom-and-bust cycles

B) fluctuate

An unexpected freeze that kills a population of chipmunks is an example of ______.

A) a density-dependent factor
B) a natal effect
C) an intrinsic factor
D) a density-independent factor

D) a density-independent factor

The Endangered Species Act aims to help protect species that ______.

A) are in danger of extinction
B) compete with invasive species
C) have suffered significant habitat destruction
D) are economically valuable

A) are in danger of extinction

The red-cockaded woodpecker, an endangered species, is dependent upon ______ for maintenance of its source habitat.

A) fire
B) corn snakes
C) floods
D) thick vegetation at least 15 feet in height

A) fire

You arrive back in the United States after having visited a foreign country located on another continent. The customs agent stops the person in front of you and confiscates the fruit basket this person is bringing home. Being the knowledgeable person you are, you calmly explain to your enraged fellow traveler that the reason for the detainment is that the fruit basket may be ______.

A) contaminated with CFCs that will damage the ozone layer above North America
B) contaminated with sufficient DDT to cause serious harm to anyone who eats the fruit
C) carrying a non-native species that could damage North American ecosystems
D) carrying endangered fruit

C) carrying a non-native species that could damage North American ecosystems

Non-native species can have important effects on biological communities by ______.

A) preying upon native species
B) doing all of the above
C) reducing biodiversity
D) competing with native species for resources

B) doing all of the above

Examples of invasive species include ______.

A) kudzu and red-cockaded woodpeckers
B) cod and Chilean sea bass
C) snowshoe hares and kudzu
D) cheatgrass and Burmese pythons

D) cheatgrass and Burmese pythons

The intentional release of a natural enemy to attack a pest population is called _____.

A) coevolution
B) biological control
C) integrated pest management
D) sustainable resource management

B) biological control

The use of the Indian mongoose to control rat populations

A) shows why integrated pest management usually fails.
B) is an example of how coevolution makes biological control difficult.
C) became a disaster when the mongoose turned out to be as invasive as its target.
D) shows how effective biological control can be.

C) became a disaster when the mongoose turned out to be as invasive as its target.

Most crop pests ______.

A) have an equilibrial life history
B) have an opportunistic life history
C) exhibit type I survivorship
D) consist of long-lived individuals

B) have an opportunistic life history

Integrated pest management ______.

A) advocates total eradication of pest species
B) advocates mixed-species plantings and rotating crops
C) favors overwhelming a pest with chemical pesticides
D) aims to keep pest populations on an exponential growth curve

B) advocates mixed-species plantings and rotating crops

Throughout most of human history, human population size _____.

A) was at carrying capacity
B) grew very slowly
C) skyrocketed
D) showed boom and bust cycles

B) grew very slowly

In most developed countries, overall population growth rates ______.

A) are high, so the population is growing rapidly
B) are near zero, so the population size is fairly stable
C) are low, so the population is declining
D) are high, so the population size is fairly stable

B) are near zero, so the population size is fairly stable

In most developing countries ______.

A) birth rates equal death rates, so population size is fairly stable
B) birth rates are much higher than death rates, so the population is growing rapidly
C) birth rates are lower than death rates, so the population is growing rapidly
D) birth rates are lower than death rates, so the population is declining

B) birth rates are much higher than death rates, so the population is growing rapidly

What will be the approximate shape of the age-structure diagram of a rapidly increasing population?

A) a rectangle
B) an inverted pyramid
C) an hourglass
D) a pyramid

D) a pyramid

A study of the human ecological footprint shows that ______.

A) A human population size will soon crash
B) we have already overshot the planet’s capacity to sustain us
C) Earth can sustain the current population, but not much more
D) Earth can sustain a population about double the current population

B) we have already overshot the planet’s capacity to sustain us

The ecological footprint of the United States ______.

A) Is lower than the global average
B) is about the same as the global average
C) shows that Americans consume a disproportionate amount of food and fuel
D) shows that its population size is increasing slowly

C) shows that Americans consume a disproportionate amount of food and fuel

The figure below shows population cycles of snowshoe hare and lynx. Recent field studies suggest that the most likely explanation for these cycles is ______.

A) boom and bust cycles in lemming populations
B) excessive predation of snowshoe hares
C) periodic winter storms
D) nearly unlimited food for hares during the summers

B) excessive predation of snowshoe hares

When did male fur seals reach carrying capacity?

A) 1950
B) 1915
C) 1930
D) 1940

D) 1940

This graph represents three different populations. Use it to answer the following questions.

Which population is growing at the fastest rate?

A) Population C
B) Population A
C) Population B

B) Population A

This graph represents three different populations. Use it to answer the following questions.

If all populations occupy different areas that are approximately the same size, which population will have the lowest density after three years?

A) Population B
B) Population C
C) Population A

B) Population C

Which of the following choices matches this figure?

A) In some species of lizards and rodents, survivorship is constant over the life span.
B) During “mating frenzies,” male and female squid aggregate and release hundreds of eggs and sperm into the water column. The fertilized eggs are often quickly preyed on by fish.
C) Dolphins produce only single offspring at a time and provide parental care for many months.
D) The century plant grows for many years and reproduces and releases hundreds of seeds just once before it withers and dies. Because of the dry desert environment in which it lives, many of the seeds do not survive or are eaten.

C) Dolphins produce only single offspring at a time and provide parental care for many months.

Michigan’s Isle Royale is located in Lake Superior and is 45 miles long and 9 miles wide. Ecologists estimate that the moose population has been on the island since around 1900. The wolf population, on the other hand, has only been there since the winter of 1949. The conditions had to be just right for the lake to freeze and the weather to be calm enough for the first wolves to make the passage over to the island. When the wolves arrived, they were greeted with a large moose population that had no predators. The moose population was at a dangerously high level, but was kept in check by the arrival of the wolves. This “harmonious” pattern continued for at least 20 years.

In 1982, the wolf population suddenly crashed. The problem was a new canine virus. This virus surfaced around the world in 1978 and spread rapidly in about six months. Infected animals can survive, but they have to be treated immediately. Ecologists hypothesized that the virus arrived on the island carried on the shoe of a human traveler. The wolf population decreased from 50 to 14 individuals in a year. While the wolf population dropped, the moose population increased. However, the winter of 1996 was extremely harsh and the moose population experienced a major crash. More than 500 animals died during the winter months, reducing the population to less than 800 animals.

What most likely happened when the wolves first arrived on the island?

A) The moose population crashed because of the introduction of a predator.
B) The wolf population was at its carrying capacity.
C) The wolf population increased exponentially.
D) The moose population increased exponentially.

C) The wolf population increased exponentially.

Michigan’s Isle Royale is located in Lake Superior and is 45 miles long and 9 miles wide. Ecologists estimate that the moose population has been on the island since around 1900. The wolf population, on the other hand, has only been there since the winter of 1949. The conditions had to be just right for the lake to freeze and the weather to be calm enough for the first wolves to make the passage over to the island. When the wolves arrived, they were greeted with a large moose population that had no predators. The moose population was at a dangerously high level, but was kept in check by the arrival of the wolves. This “harmonious” pattern continued for at least 20 years.

In 1982, the wolf population suddenly crashed. The problem was a new canine virus. This virus surfaced around the world in 1978 and spread rapidly in about six months. Infected animals can survive, but they have to be treated immediately. Ecologists hypothesized that the virus arrived on the island carried on the shoe of a human traveler. The wolf population decreased from 50 to 14 individuals in a year. While the wolf population dropped, the moose population increased. However, the winter of 1996 was extremely harsh and the moose population experienced a major crash. More than 500 animals died during the winter months, reducing the population to less than 800 animals.

The virus introduced to the island in 1982 that reduced the wolf population is an example of ______.

A) intraspecific competition
B) a density-independent factor
C) a density-dependent factor
D) acclimation

C) a density-dependent factor

Michigan’s Isle Royale is located in Lake Superior and is 45 miles long and 9 miles wide. Ecologists estimate that the moose population has been on the island since around 1900. The wolf population, on the other hand, has only been there since the winter of 1949. The conditions had to be just right for the lake to freeze and the weather to be calm enough for the first wolves to make the passage over to the island. When the wolves arrived, they were greeted with a large moose population that had no predators. The moose population was at a dangerously high level, but was kept in check by the arrival of the wolves. This “harmonious” pattern continued for at least 20 years.

In 1982, the wolf population suddenly crashed. The problem was a new canine virus. This virus surfaced around the world in 1978 and spread rapidly in about six months. Infected animals can survive, but they have to be treated immediately. Ecologists hypothesized that the virus arrived on the island carried on the shoe of a human traveler. The wolf population decreased from 50 to 14 individuals in a year. While the wolf population dropped, the moose population increased. However, the winter of 1996 was extremely harsh and the moose population experienced a major crash. More than 500 animals died during the winter months, reducing the population to less than 800 animals.

The harsh winter that led to the death of many moose in 1996 is an example of ______.

A) acclimation
B) a density-independent factor
C) a density-dependent factor
D) a trigger for logistic growth

B) a density-independent factor

Michigan’s Isle Royale is located in Lake Superior and is 45 miles long and 9 miles wide. Ecologists estimate that the moose population has been on the island since around 1900. The wolf population, on the other hand, has only been there since the winter of 1949. The conditions had to be just right for the lake to freeze and the weather to be calm enough for the first wolves to make the passage over to the island. When the wolves arrived, they were greeted with a large moose population that had no predators. The moose population was at a dangerously high level, but was kept in check by the arrival of the wolves. This “harmonious” pattern continued for at least 20 years.

In 1982, the wolf population suddenly crashed. The problem was a new canine virus. This virus surfaced around the world in 1978 and spread rapidly in about six months. Infected animals can survive, but they have to be treated immediately. Ecologists hypothesized that the virus arrived on the island carried on the shoe of a human traveler. The wolf population decreased from 50 to 14 individuals in a year. While the wolf population dropped, the moose population increased. However, the winter of 1996 was extremely harsh and the moose population experienced a major crash. More than 500 animals died during the winter months, reducing the population to less than 800 animals.

During a one-year study, a graduate student attempted to count the wolves and moose on the island. He estimated that there were 950 moose and 120 wolves. How many organisms, populations, and species were included in this study?

A) organisms = 2; populations = 2; species = 1,070
B) organisms = 2; populations = 1; species = 2
C) organisms = 1,070; populations = 2; species = 2
D) organisms = 1,070; populations = 1; species = 2

C) organisms = 1,070; populations = 2; species = 2

The present rate of species loss ______.

A) is about the same as it has been during the last 100,000 years
B) is as much as 100 times higher than at any time in the last 100,000 years
C) suggests that about 25% of all plant and animal species may be extinct by the end of the century
D) is slower than in recent years because of conservation efforts

B) is as much as 100 times higher than at any time in the last 100,000 years

The single greatest threat to biodiversity comes from ______.

A) invasive species
B) overexploitation
C) pollution
D) habitat destruction and fragmentation

D) habitat destruction and fragmentation

Several years ago I was crossing the border from Canada to the United States and I had a bag of Washington State apples with me. The customs officer at the border would not let me take the apples with me into the United States (and I really hated the idea of getting rid of a bag of perfectly good apples). Why did the customs officer refuse to allow me to cross the border with my apples?

A) There may have been a species that was not native to the United States hitching a ride on my apples.
B) Economics: If I couldn’t bring the apples in with me, I would have to buy my apples from a store in the United States.
C) Apples grown in the United States for export may be contaminated with DDT.
D) Washington State apples are considered an endangered fruit.

A) There may have been a species that was not native to the United States hitching a ride on my apples.

An example of a mutualism, or +/+ relationship, is ______.

A) herbivory
B) the relationship between corals and unicellular algae
C) cryptic coloration in frogs
D) the relationship between Virginia’s warblers and orange-crowned warblers, which use some of the same resources

B) the relationship between corals and unicellular algae

Populations of two coexisting species are both tertiary consumers in a community. What relationship may exist between these two organisms?

A) commensalism
B) competition
C) predation
D) mutualism

B) competition

As a result of a severe disturbance, a community will ______.

A) not be repopulated
B) be replaced by a community that is completely different from the previous community
C) not recover for thousands of years
D) undergo succession

D) undergo succession

Organisms that consume producers are ______.

A) primary consumers
B) decomposers
C) producers
D) detritivores

A) primary consumers

In the food chain grass → antelope → human → lion, the antelope is

A) both a producer and a primary consumer.
B) both an herbivore and a primary consumer.
C) a secondary consumer only.
D) both an herbivore and a secondary consumer.

B) both an herbivore and a primary consumer.

In the food chain grass → antelope → human → lion, the human is a(n) ______.

A) secondary consumer
B) tertiary consumer
C) primary consumer
D) producer

A) secondary consumer

Small fishes that eat zooplankton are

A) tertiary consumers
B) primary consumers
C) producers
D) secondary consumers

D) secondary consumers

Which of these convert organic matter to inorganic matter by breaking down dead organisms?

A) detritivores
B) producers
C) primary consumers
D) decomposers

D) decomposers

Most decomposers are _____.

A) bacteria and plants
B) fungi and prokaryotes
C) animals
D) plants and fungi

B) fungi and prokaryotes

Bears eat berries, humans, and large fish; large fish eat smaller fish and insects; humans eat bears, large fish, and berries; Venus flytraps eat insects. The scenario described here is an example of ______.

A) a food chain
B) an ecosystem
C) parasitism
D) a food web

D) a food web

Herbivory is an example of a _____ interaction.

A) 0/+
B) +/+
C) -/-
D) +/-

D) +/-

In order to assess the species diversity of a community, you would need to know the number of different species present as well as ______.

A) the fraction of these species that are plants
B) the number of trophic levels in the community
C) the relative abundance of the different species
D) the intensity of interspecific competition in the community

C) the relative abundance of the different species

What is one way in which energy flow differs from chemical cycling?

A) Energy flow is unidirectional; chemical elements can be recycled.
B) Energy can enter but cannot leave an ecosystem; chemical elements can leave but cannot enter an ecosystem.
C) Energy flows from lower to higher trophic levels; chemicals cycle from higher to lower trophic levels.
D) Energy can both enter and leave an ecosystem; chemical elements always remain within a single ecosystem.

A) Energy flow is unidirectional; chemical elements can be recycled.

Approximately what percentage of the visible light that reaches Earth’s producers is converted to chemical energy?

A) 10%
B) 1%
C) 0.1%
D) 0.01%

C) 0.1%

Biomass is the total amount of ______ an ecosystem.

A) organic matter tied up in the consumers of
B) organic matter tied up in the producers of
C) living organic material in
D) chemical elements recycled by the detritivores of

C) living organic material in

The rate at which an ecosystem’s producers convert solar energy to chemical energy stored in biomass is called ______.

A) primary productivity
B) chemical cycle
C) trophic structure
D) energy flow

A) primary productivity

On average, what percentage of the energy in one trophic level becomes incorporated into the next higher trophic level?

A) 50%
B) 10%
C) 90%
D) 30%

B) 10%

Which type of ecosystem has low production but nonetheless contributes a large proportion of Earth’s total net primary production?

A) desert
B) tropical rain forest
C) open ocean
D) coral reef

C) open ocean

Why are most food chains limited to three to five trophic levels?

A) The nutritional quality of existing biomass decreases with increasing trophic level.
B) Most ecosystems have insufficient space to support the increased number of organisms that more trophic levels would require.
C) The higher the trophic level, the larger the organism; the larger the organism, the less likely it will be prey.
D) There is insufficient energy to support more trophic levels.

D) There is insufficient energy to support more trophic levels.

Besides the atmosphere, abiotic reservoirs of carbon dioxide include

A) fossil fuels only.
B) rocks and dissolved carbon compounds in the oceans.
C) fossil fuels and dissolved carbon compounds in the oceans.
D) rocks only.

B) rocks and dissolved carbon compounds in the oceans.

The atmosphere is approximately 80% ______ gas.

A) CH4
B) H2O
C) N2
D) CO2

C) N2

Plants can utilize the ______ form of nitrogen.

A) nitrate
B) N2
C) thiol
D) amino

A) nitrate

Which of these organisms convert atmospheric nitrogen gas to a form that can be utilized by plants?

A) animals
B) fungi
C) bacteria
D) protists

C) bacteria

______ convert nitrogen from a form that can be assimilated by plants to N2.

A) Denitrifying bacteria
B) Nitrifying bacteria
C) Nitrogen-fixing bacteria living in the root nodules of legumes
D) Nitrogen-fixing bacteria living in the soil

A) Denitrifying bacteria

The major abiotic reservoir for phosphorus is ______.

A) rock
B) the atmosphere
C) the oceans
D) dead organic matter

A) rock

With regard to nutrient pollution in aquatic ecosystems, when is the worst time to apply fertilizer to your lawn?

A) when it is cold, or is about to get cold
B) at night
C) at the same time you apply pesticides
D) when it is raining, or is about to rain

D) when it is raining, or is about to rain

The primary goal of conservation biology is to ______.

A) maximize the land set aside for wildlife
B) integrate human culture back into nature
C) counter the loss of biodiversity
D) catalog species

C) counter the loss of biodiversity

Modern conservation science increasingly aims at ______.

A) maintenance of genetic diversity within species
B) countering pollution
C) sustaining entire ecosystems
D) protection of federally listed endangered species

C) sustaining entire ecosystems

Species found in only one place on Earth are called ______ species.

A) hot spot
B) keystone
C) endemic
D) exotic

C) endemic

Small areas that have a large number of endangered and threatened species are referred to as ______.

A) endemic environments
B) biologically magnified
C) biodiversity hot spots
D) biodiverse environments

C) biodiversity hot spots

A regional assemblage of interacting ecosystems is a ______.

A) movement corridor
B) landscape
C) biome
D) hot spot

B) landscape

Landscape ecology ______.

A) deals with the study of the ranges of different species
B) is the application of ecological principles to the study of land-use patterns
C) focuses primarily on how to restore human-altered ecological systems
D) deals primarily with ecosystems in urban settings

B) is the application of ecological principles to the study of land-use patterns

A movement corridor ______.

A) is a natural component of the environment
B) is a path used by migratory animals when they move to their winter habitats
C) is the path most commonly used by an animal within its home range
D) connects otherwise isolated patches of quality habitat for a species

D) connects otherwise isolated patches of quality habitat for a species

Movement corridors are ______.

A) only found along stream sides
B) beneficial because they allow for dispersal, but not harmful
C) harmful because they allow for the spread of disease and beneficial because they allow for dispersal
D) always created by humans

C) harmful because they allow for the spread of disease and beneficial because they allow for dispersal

Sustainable development ______.

A) will require global, multinational cooperation
B) will require making difficult decisions regarding the environment and lifestyle
C) must be achieved if the human species is to survive
D) involves all of the above

D) involves all of the above

E. O. Wilson coined the term ______ for our innate appreciation of wild environments and living organisms.

A) bioremediation
B) biophilia
C) bioethics
D) biophobia

B) biophilia

Please refer to the following art to answer the following question(s).  Refer to the figure above. This photo represents ______ community(ies).  A) 1
B) 0
C) 2
D) You cannot tell from the photo.
Please refer to the following art to answer the following question(s).

Refer to the figure above. This photo represents ______ community(ies).

A) 1
B) 0
C) 2
D) You cannot tell from the photo.

A) 1

Please refer to the following art to answer the following question(s).  In the ecosystem shown above, a toxin that accumulates in body tissues would have the largest effect on ______.  A) The toxin would affect all of these equally.
B) fish that eat shrimp and other invertebrates
C) herbivorous shrimp
D) corals that obtain their food from photosynthesizing dinoflagellates
Please refer to the following art to answer the following question(s).

In the ecosystem shown above, a toxin that accumulates in body tissues would have the largest effect on ______.

A) The toxin would affect all of these equally.
B) fish that eat shrimp and other invertebrates
C) herbivorous shrimp
D) corals that obtain their food from photosynthesizing dinoflagellates

B) fish that eat shrimp and other invertebrates

The figure below shows the growth curves of two populations of Paramecium, P. aurelia and P. caudatum. From the data, we can conclude that ______. 
A) P. aurelia and P. caudatum have a mutualistic relationship
B) the ecological niches of the two species are very different
C) P. aurelia is a predator of P. caudatum
D) P. aurelia is the superior competitor in this habitat
The figure below shows the growth curves of two populations of Paramecium, P. aurelia and P. caudatum. From the data, we can conclude that ______.

A) P. aurelia and P. caudatum have a mutualistic relationship
B) the ecological niches of the two species are very different
C) P. aurelia is a predator of P. caudatum
D) P. aurelia is the superior competitor in this habitat

D) P. aurelia is the superior competitor in this habitat

Refer to the following figure. If there were an additional trophic level that consisted of organisms that prey on snakes, about how much energy would be available to organisms at that trophic level?  A) 90%
B) 100 kcal
C) 10 kcal
D) 1 kcal
Refer to the following figure. If there were an additional trophic level that consisted of organisms that prey on snakes, about how much energy would be available to organisms at that trophic level?

A) 90%
B) 100 kcal
C) 10 kcal
D) 1 kcal

D) 1 kcal

Malaria is an infectious disease caused by a unicellular eukaryotic organism belonging to the genus Plasmodium. These eukaryotic organisms are transmitted from one person to another by the female Anopheles mosquito when it feeds on human blood. Within humans, the Plasmodium spp. destroy red blood cells and, without effective treatment, serious infections can lead to death. Currently, more than 400 million people are afflicted with malaria and between 1 to 3 million people die from it each year. Historically, a chemical compound called quinine has been used in developing effective drugs against malaria. In its natural environment, quinine is produced by certain trees native to South America. This chemical is synthesized in the outer layer of tree trunks and acts as an herbivore deterrent.

Based on the relationship between Plasmodium spp. and humans, these organisms would be considered ______.

A) carnivores
B) hosts
C) parasites
D producers

C) parasites

Malaria is an infectious disease caused by a unicellular eukaryotic organism belonging to the genus Plasmodium. These eukaryotic organisms are transmitted from one person to another by the female Anopheles mosquito when it feeds on human blood. Within humans, the Plasmodium spp. destroy red blood cells and, without effective treatment, serious infections can lead to death. Currently, more than 400 million people are afflicted with malaria and between 1 to 3 million people die from it each year. Historically, a chemical compound called quinine has been used in developing effective drugs against malaria. In its natural environment, quinine is produced by certain trees native to South America. This chemical is synthesized in the outer layer of tree trunks and acts as an herbivore deterrent.

Humans, mosquitoes, and Plasmodium together would be considered a(n) ______.

A) community
B) population and community
C) population
D) ecosystem

A) community

Malaria is an infectious disease caused by a unicellular eukaryotic organism belonging to the genus Plasmodium. These eukaryotic organisms are transmitted from one person to another by the female Anopheles mosquito when it feeds on human blood. Within humans, the Plasmodium spp. destroy red blood cells and, without effective treatment, serious infections can lead to death. Currently, more than 400 million people are afflicted with malaria and between 1 to 3 million people die from it each year. Historically, a chemical compound called quinine has been used in developing effective drugs against malaria. In its natural environment, quinine is produced by certain trees native to South America. This chemical is synthesized in the outer layer of tree trunks and acts as an herbivore deterrent.

Despite being used for many years, quinine-based drugs have not led to the eradication of malaria and currently there are mosquitoes that are resistant to the compound. Which of the following were likely important in the development of this resistance to quinine?

A) biological magnification
B) interspecific competition
C) mutualism
D) natural selection

D) natural selection