C451 / INC1 WGU Integrated Natural Sciences 3/2016

Observations
A collection of measurements, notes, images, etc. to describe a phenomenon

Reproductive Result
Different Researchers following the published methods finding the same result

Conclusion
The summary of the results of an experiment or set of experiments

Theory
Synthesis of information and well-tested hypotheses; may be disputed

Hypothesis
A scientific idea undergoing testing

Ohms
Used to measure for resistance to an electrical current

Micrometers
Used to measure the diameter of a lung alveoli

Joules
Used to measure work done pushing a refrigerator across a room

Millivolts
Used to measure the potential difference across a nerve synapse

Liters
Used to measure the volume of air that can be inhaled in a single breath

Mechanical Advantage of a Lever
A small input force applied to one end of a lever produces a large output force at the opposite end of the lever

Physics
The study of Electricity, electrical circuits, forces, energy, heat, sound, light, and subatomic energies

Astronomy
The study of stars and planets

Earth Science
The study of geology, meteorology and oceanography

Biology
The study of living organisms

Chemistry
The study of the interactions between compounds and molecules

A Hypotheses must be?
Falsifiable and results must be repeatable

A systems approach to scientific study?
Enables scientists to take into account the various parts of a system when making predictions about system behavior

Law
A law is widely accepted by the scientific community

Creativity
Enables scientists to come up with new hypotheses

Big Bang Theory
Account for the beginning of both time and space in the universe

Produces a decrease in Gravitational and electrical force between two objects
Increasing the Distance between objects and decreasing the electrical charge and the mass of both objects

The primary thermonuclear reaction that occurs in our Sun
A certain mass of hydrogen atoms is fused together every second to become a lesser mass of helium atoms, and the missing mass is released as radiant energy

Two phenomena are the result of gravity between the Moon and the Earth
One side of the Moon always facing Earth and Phases of the Moon

How does cosmic background radiation with a wavelength of 7.35cm help support the big bang theory?
The wavelength matches the predicted value for the current temperature of the universe and radiation is coming from all directions with no specific source

White Dwarf
Star no longer undergoing fusion

Red Giant
Star near it’s final stage of evolution, burns helium as it’s primary fuel and begins to have carton build-up in the core; type of star the Sun will become

Main-Sequence Star
Star burns hydrogen as its primary fuel

Three helium nuclei combine to form a carbon nucleus, releasing light energy
Process of Thermonuclear fusion in a helium-burning star

Electromagnetic Waves with Frequency higher than that of visible light
Gamma Rays, Ultraviolet and X-Rays

Electromagnetic Waves with Frequency lower than that of visible light
Radio Waves, Infrared and Microwaves

Order of the objects, increasing in distance from the Sun
Mercury, Venus, Earth, Mars, Astroid Belt, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus and Neptune

Jupiter
Has a very strong magnetic field that produces the highest radiation levels ever measured and is the most massive planet

Pluto
Composed primarily of rock and nitrogen ice

Saturn
Has the lowest density of any planet

Radio Waves
Electromagnetic wave is used to transmit AM/FM radio stations

X-Rays
Electromagnetic wave is used to identify broken bones

Ultraviolet
Electromagnetic wave is used to kill bacteria and sanitize instruments

Microwaves
Electromagnetic wave is used to cook and heat food

Gamma Rays
Electromagnetic wave is used in medicine for cancer treatment?

Metamorphic Rocks
Contain minerals from igneous or sedimentary rocks, can be foliated and are recrystallized

Granite
Coarse-grained and plutonic

Marble
Large interlocking crystals of calcite, non foliated and metamorphic

Silicate
Four oxygen atoms joined to one silicon atom in a tetrahedron

Diamond
Carbon arranged in a crystal lattice

Magnetism
Deflects moving charged particles, is perpendicular to current flowing through a wire and causes a directional needle in a compass to rotate

Electricity
Occurs when there is a difference in Electrical Potential and is measured as current

How Table Salt is Bonded together
Electrons in the salt are transferred to form cations and anions, Chlorine and Sodium fill their outermost energy shells by donating or gaining electrons

Water reacts to Freezing by?
Decreasing transitional energy, move into a more orderly arrangement and move slight away from each other

Crust
Contains the highest concentration of silica

Core
Composed primarily of nickel and iron and cannot be penetrated by S-Waves

Mantle
Contains iron-rich silicate rock

The Himalayan Mountain range is produced by what tectonic movements?
A continental plate is colliding with another continental plate, causing upward motion and a lithospheric plate is colliding with another lithospheric plate of similar buoyancy

Effects of the Earth’s Hadley Cells
Trade Winds, Regions of high rainfall in the tropics and clear skies in the subtropical desert

Kinetic Energy
Energy in motion (i.e. Propagation of sound, driving in a straight line at a constant speed)

Chemical Potential Energy
Stored Energy in Chemicals (i.e. Energy stored in glucose, random molecular motion)

Gravitational Potential Energy
Stored Energy in objects being acted upon by gravity

Law of Conservation of Energy
Energy cannot be created or destroyed

Radio Waves Transferred by?
Vibrating electric and magnetic fields force electrons in the receiving antenna to vibrate at the same frequency

Newton’s 3rd Law of Motion
For every action, there is an equal and opposite reaction.

Role of Solar Energy
Warms air at the equator which rises and spreads towards the poles, circulating in large convection currents and plants covert carbon dioxide and water into glucose and oxygen through photosynthesis

Two most Abundant gases in Earth Atmosphere
Oxygen & Nitrogen

Seismometers
Used to measure earthquake magnitude and infer the structure of the Earth’s Interior

Abiotic and Biotic relationship in a forest ecosystem
Solar energy enabling plants to create organic molecules

First Tropic Level
Plants and algae make their own food and are called primary producers

Second Trophic Level
Herbivores eat plants and are called primary consumers

Third Trophic Level
Carnivores that eat herbivores are called secondary consumers

Fourth Trophic Level
Carnivores that eat other carnivores are called tertiary consumers

Fifth Trophic Level
Apex predators that have no predators are at the top of the food chain

Plants
Multicellular terrestrial photosynthetic autotrophs

Fungi
Single-celled heterotroph used in baking

Animals
Multicellular heterotrophs that obtain nutrients by ingestion and heterotrophs with an exoskeleton

Protists
A single-sealed heterotroph that causes severe gastric distress in it’s host