C451 / INC1 WGU Integrated Natural Sciences 3/2016

Observations
A collection of measurements, notes, images, etc. to describe a phenomenon
Reproductive Result
Different Researchers following the published methods finding the same result
Conclusion
The summary of the results of an experiment or set of experiments
Theory
Synthesis of information and well-tested hypotheses; may be disputed
Hypothesis
A scientific idea undergoing testing
Ohms
Used to measure for resistance to an electrical current
Micrometers
Used to measure the diameter of a lung alveoli
Joules
Used to measure work done pushing a refrigerator across a room
Millivolts
Used to measure the potential difference across a nerve synapse
Liters
Used to measure the volume of air that can be inhaled in a single breath
Mechanical Advantage of a Lever
A small input force applied to one end of a lever produces a large output force at the opposite end of the lever
Physics
The study of Electricity, electrical circuits, forces, energy, heat, sound, light, and subatomic energies
Astronomy
The study of stars and planets
Earth Science
The study of geology, meteorology and oceanography
Biology
The study of living organisms
Chemistry
The study of the interactions between compounds and molecules
A Hypotheses must be?
Falsifiable and results must be repeatable
A systems approach to scientific study?
Enables scientists to take into account the various parts of a system when making predictions about system behavior
Law
A law is widely accepted by the scientific community
Creativity
Enables scientists to come up with new hypotheses
Big Bang Theory
Account for the beginning of both time and space in the universe
Produces a decrease in Gravitational and electrical force between two objects
Increasing the Distance between objects and decreasing the electrical charge and the mass of both objects
The primary thermonuclear reaction that occurs in our Sun
A certain mass of hydrogen atoms is fused together every second to become a lesser mass of helium atoms, and the missing mass is released as radiant energy
Two phenomena are the result of gravity between the Moon and the Earth
One side of the Moon always facing Earth and Phases of the Moon
How does cosmic background radiation with a wavelength of 7.35cm help support the big bang theory?
The wavelength matches the predicted value for the current temperature of the universe and radiation is coming from all directions with no specific source
White Dwarf
Star no longer undergoing fusion
Red Giant
Star near it’s final stage of evolution, burns helium as it’s primary fuel and begins to have carton build-up in the core; type of star the Sun will become
Main-Sequence Star
Star burns hydrogen as its primary fuel
Three helium nuclei combine to form a carbon nucleus, releasing light energy
Process of Thermonuclear fusion in a helium-burning star
Electromagnetic Waves with Frequency higher than that of visible light
Gamma Rays, Ultraviolet and X-Rays
Electromagnetic Waves with Frequency lower than that of visible light
Radio Waves, Infrared and Microwaves
Order of the objects, increasing in distance from the Sun
Mercury, Venus, Earth, Mars, Astroid Belt, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus and Neptune
Jupiter
Has a very strong magnetic field that produces the highest radiation levels ever measured and is the most massive planet
Pluto
Composed primarily of rock and nitrogen ice
Saturn
Has the lowest density of any planet
Radio Waves
Electromagnetic wave is used to transmit AM/FM radio stations
X-Rays
Electromagnetic wave is used to identify broken bones
Ultraviolet
Electromagnetic wave is used to kill bacteria and sanitize instruments
Microwaves
Electromagnetic wave is used to cook and heat food
Gamma Rays
Electromagnetic wave is used in medicine for cancer treatment?
Metamorphic Rocks
Contain minerals from igneous or sedimentary rocks, can be foliated and are recrystallized
Granite
Coarse-grained and plutonic
Marble
Large interlocking crystals of calcite, non foliated and metamorphic
Silicate
Four oxygen atoms joined to one silicon atom in a tetrahedron
Diamond
Carbon arranged in a crystal lattice
Magnetism
Deflects moving charged particles, is perpendicular to current flowing through a wire and causes a directional needle in a compass to rotate
Electricity
Occurs when there is a difference in Electrical Potential and is measured as current
How Table Salt is Bonded together
Electrons in the salt are transferred to form cations and anions, Chlorine and Sodium fill their outermost energy shells by donating or gaining electrons
Water reacts to Freezing by?
Decreasing transitional energy, move into a more orderly arrangement and move slight away from each other
Crust
Contains the highest concentration of silica
Core
Composed primarily of nickel and iron and cannot be penetrated by S-Waves
Mantle
Contains iron-rich silicate rock
The Himalayan Mountain range is produced by what tectonic movements?
A continental plate is colliding with another continental plate, causing upward motion and a lithospheric plate is colliding with another lithospheric plate of similar buoyancy
Effects of the Earth’s Hadley Cells
Trade Winds, Regions of high rainfall in the tropics and clear skies in the subtropical desert
Kinetic Energy
Energy in motion (i.e. Propagation of sound, driving in a straight line at a constant speed)
Chemical Potential Energy
Stored Energy in Chemicals (i.e. Energy stored in glucose, random molecular motion)
Gravitational Potential Energy
Stored Energy in objects being acted upon by gravity
Law of Conservation of Energy
Energy cannot be created or destroyed
Radio Waves Transferred by?
Vibrating electric and magnetic fields force electrons in the receiving antenna to vibrate at the same frequency
Newton’s 3rd Law of Motion
For every action, there is an equal and opposite reaction.
Role of Solar Energy
Warms air at the equator which rises and spreads towards the poles, circulating in large convection currents and plants covert carbon dioxide and water into glucose and oxygen through photosynthesis
Two most Abundant gases in Earth Atmosphere
Oxygen & Nitrogen
Seismometers
Used to measure earthquake magnitude and infer the structure of the Earth’s Interior
Abiotic and Biotic relationship in a forest ecosystem
Solar energy enabling plants to create organic molecules
First Tropic Level
Plants and algae make their own food and are called primary producers
Second Trophic Level
Herbivores eat plants and are called primary consumers
Third Trophic Level
Carnivores that eat herbivores are called secondary consumers
Fourth Trophic Level
Carnivores that eat other carnivores are called tertiary consumers
Fifth Trophic Level
Apex predators that have no predators are at the top of the food chain
Plants
Multicellular terrestrial photosynthetic autotrophs
Fungi
Single-celled heterotroph used in baking
Animals
Multicellular heterotrophs that obtain nutrients by ingestion and heterotrophs with an exoskeleton
Protists
A single-sealed heterotroph that causes severe gastric distress in it’s host