C.J. Research Methods (Multiple Choice)

Ethics in social research
all of these choices are correct
The PRIMARY ethical research issue raised by the Milgram study was
the effects of the methods on the experimental subjects.
Which of the following ststement is NOT found in the AAPOR Code of Professional Ethics and Practices?
We shall select research tools and methods of analysis because of their special capacity to yield a desired conclusion.
Weber called the lack of intrusion of the researcher’s own political position on research
value-free research
When names are removed from questionnaires and are replaced with identification numbers so that only the researcher can later link a response to a particular name, the researcher should tell the respondent that the information is
confidential
Ethical consideration are NOT invoked by
all of these choices may invoke ethical considerations
Professor Winer sent a mail questionnaire to 2,000 subjects. Winer told subjects that their responses would be held in strict confidence. After the first mailing the return rate was 50%. For a second mailing, Winer should mail
1,000 questionnaires
Which of the following does NOT harm subjects?
all of these choices may harm respondents
Ethical obligations to one’s colleagues in the scientific community
require that technical shortcomings and failures of the study be revealed
Which of the following techniques of data collection is MOST likely to make a guarantee of anonymity difficult?
face-to-face interviews
Ethical issues are distinguished from political issues in research in that
there are no formal codes of accepted political conduct whereas there are codes of ethical conduct
Professor Smith’s research examines the dating behaviors of college students. Smith decides to track the dating behaviors of college students throughout their college careers. She decides to begin her research using her introductory class. She assures them that all responses will be kept confidential. Her research most clearly impinges on
Voluntary participation
Which of the following statements is FALSE regarding IRBs? IRB’s
review all research
The topic of surrogate mothers interested Professor Snyder. Snyder read the available materials on the topic and wanted to develop an age, education, and income profile of women who serve as surrogate mothers in the United States. To develop this profile, Snyder should undertake a(n)
descriptive study
Professor Dooley examined the literature on AIDS and could find nothing that examined children’s attitudes toward parents and friends with AIDS. To examine this topic, Dooley should undertake
An exploratory study
If researcher wanted to know why there was a noticeable increase in the number of burglaries in the town of Southpaw during 1997, the researcher would design a(n)
explanatory study
Which of the following employs the nomothetic model of explanation?
an isolation of the three most important reasons as to why men were selected to all the leadership positions at a former women’s college that went coed
Which of the following statements is(are) accurate regarding necessary and sufficient causes?
All of these choices are true
For a nomothetic causal relationship to exist, there must be evidence
all od these choices must be evidenced
Which of the following hypotheses best fits the criteria of causality?
as education increases, income tends to increase even after controlling for gender and race
Professor King examined all the reasons given by 100 couples for their marriages. In the final research report, King listed all the reasons given by 200 people for their marriages. Professor King is
using an idiographic explanation for marriage
If we can establish that variable X comes before variable Q in time, then we can say
variable Q is not a cause of variable X
A researcher examined newspaper editorials from papers published in major U.S. cities to examine what issues concerned readers. The unit of analysis was
the newspaper editorials
In Sweden, there is a very strong correlation between the number of storks and the number of babies born. However, both of these variables are associated with region (rural vs. urban). This illustrates
that there is no causal relationship between the number of storks and the number of babies
There is a strong correlation between the number of firefighters that show up at a fire and the amount of damage produced by the fire. The size of the fire influences both the number of firefighters and the amount of damage. This illustrates that the relationship between the number of firefighters and the amount of damage is:
caused by a third factor
Which of the following is(are) TRUE regarding the nomothetic model explanation?
all of these choices are TRUE
Professor Root was studying the arrest rates for drunken driving in urban and rural areas of Ohio. It was found that the arrest rate was higher in the rural areas. Professor Root concluded that people who live in rural areas are more likely to drive while intoxicated than are people who live in urban areas. Root’s conclusion
illustrates the ecological fallacy
Which of the following statements is(are) TRUE?
Being arrested is a necessary cause for having a criminal trial.
When a researcher is faced with the question from whom or what will the information be gathered, that researcher is dealing with which of the following stages of the research design process?
units of analysis
Which of the following is NOT a characteristic of a cross-sectional study?
It concentrates on the changes that take place among a specific sample over a period of time.
Descriptive studies DO NOT
tell why something occured
If a researcher were conducting a study of women’s attitudes toward abortion, the unit of analysis would be
the individual
The 2000 Census is a________study that when used with another decennial census could be considered a ________study.
cross-sectional, trend
Explanatory studies are designed to find answers to which of the following questions?
Why are people changing careers in midlife?
A single U.S. Census is a
cross-sectional study
It is possible to draw approximate conclusions about processes that take place over time when using cross-sectional data by
all of these choices
Which of the following designs uncovers only net changes?
cohort and trend studies
Professor Stone designs a study to examine the effect of a teenage pregnancy on young women’s career choices. Stone wants to interview a sample of teenage women during their pregnancy, after the baby’s birth, and once a year after that for a ten year period. Stone is using
panel study
Which of the following is NOT an element of a research proposal?
All of these choices are elements of a research proposal
Methodology could best be described as
the science of finding out
The ________ view recognizes that scientists are human and, as such, have personal orientations that effect what they observe and how they explain it. Consequently, there is no way to see and understand that world as it “really” is
postmodern
Refer to the Happiness Study. A(the) variable(s) in this study is(are)
age
Assume that Professor Rodgers from the Happiness Study had studied only three people aged 65 or older. Suppose he had concluded that people under 65 years of age also experienced increasing levels of happiness from 1957 to 1970. He would have committed
the error of overgeneralization
Our attempts to learn about the world we live in come from
all of these choices
Social scientific theory addresses
what is and why
Which of the following would a sociologist be LEAST likely to study?
why Mr. Smith quit his job
A probabilistic explanation takes the form
x tends to be y
One of your friends scored in the 90s on her last ten exams. Although she has been studying for this exam and feels prepared, she told you, “I know I’m going to flunk this exam. I’ve been doing too well on exams.” Your friend is committing the error of
illogical reasoning
The statement, “Knowledge for knowledge’s sake” best describes
pure research
A study reported in American Sociological Review (1994) was entitled “Race Differences in Sexual Activity Among Adolescent Women.” The independent variable was probably
race
Which of the following is NOT an aim of social science?
judging social values
The statement “wealthy countries should give aid to poorer countries” is a(an)
value judgement
After examining court records, Jenny concludes that Moms are more likely to obtain custody of their children than Dads. This type of statement is:
nomothetic and probabilistic
Safeguards against error in social research include
all of these choices
In comparison to nonscientific inquiry, scientific inquiry
takes special precaution to avoid error
An independent variable is a
variable influencing other variables
Which of the following is(are) a probabilistic statement(s)?
When serving as jurors, women tend to vote for acquittal.
Which of the following is a list of variables?
occupation, political party preference, birthrate
Which of the following is TRUE of quantification
All of these choices are TRUE
Whic of the following views of reality does the statement “Beauty is in the eyes of the beholder” best reflect?
The modern view
Pregnant at age 15, Tammy decided to have the baby. Her parents were upset with her decision and threatened to “cut her off” if she did not complete high school. A difficult pregnancy and embarrassment resulted in her dropping out of school. After the baby was born her parents said that they would raise the baby but that she would have to leave the house. At age 16 Tammy was on her own and without any money or job markey skills.She began to work as a prostitute. The explanation of Tammy’s prostitution is:
Idiographic
Sally begins to think about the classes she’s enrolled in at her university. She notices that she speaks a lot in 3 of her classes and very little in two others. She also notices that the classes in which she speaks have female instructors and that she rarely speak in two classes with male instructors. She begins to list all her college courses, the gender of the professor and whether or not she spoke in the class. She notices that she tends to speak in classes where the instructor is female and rarely speaks when the instructor is male. Sally is using
Inductive reasoning
Qualitative explanations tend to be _______and quantitative explanations tend to be ________
Idiographic, nomothetic
Replication helps to guards against the error of
Overgeneralization
While doing research on crime, Professor Middler noted that crime creates jobs in law enforcement and related careers. He also noticed that crime reinforces norms when criminals are caught and punishes. Professor Middler has probably adopted a ____ approach to the study o.f crime
structural functionalism
Which of the following is NOT a function of theory for research?
all of these choices ARE functions of theory
A model or scheme for helping us organize and interpret the world is referred to as a
paradigm
Which of the following topics would s macrotheorist be more likely to study than a microtherist?
the relationships between government, family and economy
In a study of women the following notation was used: Y = f(X) where Y represented fertility plans and X requested occupational plans. This states
that fertility plans are a function of (or are affected by) occupational plans and is an hypothesis
To properly apply the Wallace model of research process, a researcher MUST begin with a(n)
all of these choices are places that the Wallace model could begin
Which of the following is NOT TRUE of paradigms
all of these choice are TRUE about paradigms
Which of the following illustrates the use of the inductive method?
observation, pattern findings, and generalizations
Grounded theory
is an inductive method of theory construction and it requires the researcher to begin constructing theory by observing aspects of social life
Which of the following paradigms is Professor May probably using?
symbolic interactionism
A sociologist with a symbolic interactionist orientation would MOST likely to do research on which of the following question(s)?
Which unstated norms govern the interaction between family members?
Which of the following outlines the steps in the traditional of science model?
theoretical understanding, operationalization of concepts, a testable hypothesis, empirical observations
Which of the following explanations flows from conflict paradigm in attempting to explain the difference in lawsuits between the two villages?
the chemical company controlled more of the village resources in Minamata than in Niigato
Jeremy attended a chamber music concert. During one of the movements he jumped up and yelled “Way to go violin.” Later he screamed ” come on cello.” As a social science student you conclude that Jeremy was probably doing research using a ____paradigm
Ethnomethodologist
A____ is a testable statement about a relationship between two variables
Hypothesis