Biology Vocab Ecosystems (15-21)

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Homologous Structures
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These are physical features shared by organisms with common ancestry; they may have the same structure, but different functions developmentally mature organisms.
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Human
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Homo sapiens
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Hurricane
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This is tropical storm system that circulates around an area of low pressure.
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Independent Assortment
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This is one of Mendel’s principles that govern the process of genetic inheritance. It states that allele pairs separate independently during the formation of gametes (sex cells). This means that traits are passed to offspring independently of one another.
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Innate Behavior
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This is an organism’s response to a stimulus developed without being taught or watching another organism.
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Internal Cycling
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This is the cycling of nutrients among soil, litter, plant roots, and above-ground plant parts.
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Interspecific Competition
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This is rivalry or competition between individuals of different species within a specific habitat.
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Intraspecific Competition
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This is when members of the same species are competing for limited resources.
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Investigation
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This is the method of researching or studying a topic. Examination, inquiry…
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Isolation
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A condition in which two populations of the same species, over time, can no longer breed with each other to produce live offspring.
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Law Of Segregation
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This is Mendel’s first law. For each inherited trait, there are at least one pair of alleles. This states that during gamete formation each member of an allelic pair separates from the other member to form the genetic make-up of a gamete (sex cell).
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Learned Behavior
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This is an organism’s response to a stimulus developed by being taught or watching another organism.
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Limiting
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These factors are directly responsible for the survival of a organism. They include water, shelter, space, and food and can all run out if being used by too many individuals.
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Logistic Population Growth
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This is a model of population growth that assumes that resources are limited and that a population will grow and then level off when that limit is reached.
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Matter
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This is anything with mass that occupies space.
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Mean Annual Precipitation
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This is the average of all annual precipitation values known for a specific area. This amount is a factor in distinguishing one biome from another.
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Mean Annual Temperature
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This is the average temperature for the entire year at any specific location. This is one of the factors in distinguishing one biome from another.
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Meiosis
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This is a process where a parent cell divides into four sex cells with half the chromosomes.
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Migration
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A recurring pattern of movement between 2 or more locations in response to environmental rhythms or seasonal changes.
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Mimicry
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This is an organism exhibiting characteristics similar to one known to be dangerous.
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Mitosis
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The process of nuclear division in cells that produces daughter cells that are genetically identical to each other and to the parent cell.
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Model
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A small object, usually built to scale, that represents in detail another, often larger object.
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Mutation
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This is a random error/change in the DNA sequence. These may be inherited or occur in cells during the lifetime of the organism.
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Natural Resource
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This is any naturally occurring substance that is considered valuable in its relatively unmodified form on Earth.
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Natural Selection
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This is the process of organisms adapting to their environments over time.
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Net Energy
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In any food web, this is the energy available to organisms for maintenance, production, and reproduction.
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Niche
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This is the role of a species in an ecosystem, consisting of such things as what it eats, when it eats, and where it lives.
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Nitrogen Cycle
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This is a biogeochemical cycle in which nitrogen is converted from its inert atmospheric molecular form (N2) into a form that is useful in biological processes. The cycle includes fixation, nitrification, assimilation, ammonification, and finally denitrification, when nitrogen is returned to the atmosphere.
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Non-native Species
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These are organisms that are brought into a new environment, sometimes accidentally, sometimes on purpose; and have no natural enemies or controls.
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Non-renewable Resource
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This is a is a natural substance that cannot be re-made, re-grown, or regenerated as fast as it is used.
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Nonpoint Source Pollution
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This is pollution that comes from hard-to-trace sources with no obvious point of discharge.
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Nuclear Energy
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The energy stored in bonds within the nucleus of an atom; energy released from a fission or fusion reaction.
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Numbers Pyramid
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This is an ecological pyramid that shows graphically the population of each trophic level in a food chain.
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Organism
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Any living thing with one or more cells.
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Overpopulation
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This is the condition where an organism’s numbers exceed the carrying capacity of its habitat.
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Oxygen Cycle
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These are the components of the reservoirs of oxygen that are exchanged in our environment.
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Ozone Layer
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Part of the Earth’s stratosphere which contains relatively high concentrations of O3. It absorbs much of the ultraviolet radiation that would normally reach the surface of the earth.
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Particulate Matter
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This is a mixture of small particles and liquid droplets, usually containing any number of components, including acids, metals, and soil or dust particles.
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Phosphorus Cycle
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This is one of the biogeochemical cycles; it is entirely sedimentary, with reserves of the element coming from phosphate rock and it enters biological cycles through photosynthesis.
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Photosynthesis
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This is a chemical process that uses light to process carbon dioxide in plants.
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Phylogeny
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This is the evolutionary history of a species or group of related species.
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Pioneer Species
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These are organisms often lichen, that colonize barren rock or lava during primary succession and help in the development of soil so other organisms may follow..

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