Biology final study guide

something that is living, was once living, or comes from something living

nonliving, physical features of the environment, including air, water, sunlight, soil, temperature, and climate

the process by which nitrites and nitrates are produced by bacteria in the soil

carbon cycle
the circulation and reutilization of carbon atoms especially via the process of photosynthesis and respiration.

Treeless arctic or alpine biome characterized by cold, harsh winters, a short growing season, and potential for frost any month of the year; vegetation includes low-growing perennial plants, mosses and lichens

has long severe winters and short cool summers. temperature only reaches 50 degrees F. Recieves 20 inches of percipatation per year (mostly snow) it has pine trees, spruses, fir trees, conifer trees, moose, wolves, and deer.

Temperate decidous forest
characterized by trees that lose all of their leaves in the fall, characterized by hardwood trees, and broad leaved trees and shrubs

Temperate grasslands
too dry for forests, too moist for deserts, grasses and other flowering plants, wild horses, asses, and antelope, bison, kangaroos, antelopes, and other large herbivores

dry areas where precipitation is less than 30cm a year, succulent plants (cactus) and scattered grasses

a region of grassland with scattered trees lying between the equatorial forest and the hot deserts in either hemisphere.

Tropical Rainforest
In this biome it rains almost everyday. Temperatures are high with little difference between day and night temperatures. There are more organisms living here than anywhere else on Earth.

bacteria that live under extreme conditions such as: high temperature, high salt content, and low oxygen, considered to be the most ancient organisms on the planet,

known as “true bacteria”, largest of the two bacterial kingdoms, contains disease causing bacteria

tiny non-living particles , smaller than bacteria and other pathogens, which must invade living cells in order to reproduce; when they invade, the cells are damaged or destroyed in the process releasing new particles to infect other cells

The basic unit of all living things

animals with a backbone

Animals without backbones

called founder of modern taxonomy; Invented binomial nomenclature

practice of classifying plants and animals according to their presumed natural relationships

binomial nominclature
the system of naming organisms by using their genus species classifications.

First and largest category used to classify organisms

Phylum or division
major classification, second to kingdom, of plants and animals; category ranking below a kingdom and above a class; division

in a traditional taxonomic system, the category contained within a phylum or division and containing orders

taxonomic group containing one or more families

In classification, the taxonomic category above genus.

a classification grouping that contains similar, closely related organisms, contains 1 or more species.

a group of organisms so similar to one another that they can breed and produce fertile offspring

(biology) the sequence of events involved in the evolutionary development of a species or taxonomic group of organisms

eukaryotic one-celled living organisms distinct from multicellular plants and animals: protozoa, slime molds, and eukaryotic algae

a kingdom of eukaryotic organisms. They are heterotrophic and digest their food externally, absorbing nutrient molecules into their cells. Yeasts, molds, and mushrooms are examples.

a classification kingdom made up of eukaryotic, multicellular organisms that have cell walls made mostly of cellulose, that have pigments that absorb light, and that supply energy and oxygen to themselves and to other life-forms through photosynthesis

Kingdom of the most complex organisms; multi-cellular, heterotrophic, lack rigid cell walls, mobile, tissues in internal organs, sensory organs, nervous system

scientific study of interactions among organisms and between organisms and their environment

a living thing that has (or can develop) the ability to act or function independently

a group of organisms of the same species populating a given area

(ecology) a group of interdependent organisms inhabiting the same region and interacting with each other

a system formed by the interaction of a community of organisms with their physical environment

the regions of the surface and atmosphere of the Earth (or other planet) where living organisms exist

limiting factors
any biotic or abiotic factor that restricts the existence, numbers, reproduction, or distribution of organisms, ex. carrying capacity of land, disease, population density, population distribution

a symbiotic relationship that benifits one organism without harming the other

symbiotic relationship in which both species benefit from the relationship

the relation between two different kinds of organisms in which one receives benefits from the other by causing damage to it (usually not fatal damage)

interaction in which one organism captures and feeds on another organism, usually killing the prey.

Primary succession
an ecological succession that begins in a an area where no biotic community previously existed

Secondary succession
Sequence of community changes that take place after a community is disrupted by natural disasters or human actions.

Climax community
a relatively stable long-lasting community reached in a successional series; usually determined by climax and soil type

Primary producer
An autotroph, usually a photosynthetic organism. Collectively, autotrophs make up the trophic level of an ecosystem that ultimately supports all other levels.

Primary consumer
An herbivore; an organism in the trophic level of an ecosystem that eats plants or algae

Secondary consumer
Organism that feeds only on primary consumers.

tertiary consumer
a member of the trophic level of an ecosystem consisting of carnivores that eat mainly other carnivores.

organism that can capture energy from sunlight or chemicals and use it to produce its own food from inorganic compounds; also called a producer

organism that obtains energy from the foods it consumes; also called a consumer

an organism that eats other organisms or organic matter instead of producing its own nutrients or obtaining nutrients from inorganic sources

an organism that makes its own food

organism that breaks down the wastes or remains of other organisms

Water cycle
the continuous process by which water moves from Earth’s surface to the atmosphere and back

the emission of water vapor from the leaves of plants

the process by which molecules of water vapor in the air become liquid water

water that flows over the ground surface rather than soaking into the ground

the falling to earth of any form of water (rain or snow or hail or sleet or mist)

the process by which water changes from liquid form to an atmospheric gas

the process by which nitrites and nitrates are produced by bacteria in the soil

nitrogen fixation
The assimilation of atmospheric nitrogen by certain bacteria into nitrogenous compounds that can be directly used by plants.

the formation of ammonia compounds in the soil by the action of bacteria on decaying matter

process in which fixed nitrogen compounds are converted back into nitrogen gas and returned to the atmosphere

Cellular respiration
the process by which cells obtain energy from carbohydrates; atmospheric oxygen combines with glucose to form water and carbon dioxide

process where organisms use the suns energy, carbondioxide, and water to produce oxygen and glucose.

A longitudinal rod of cells that forms in the least developed chordates and in embryonic stages of more developed chordates.

comprises true vertebrates and animals having a notochord, the group of animals that have a notochord at some point in their lives.

Division of an animal body along its length into a series of repeated parts called segments

invertebrate having jointed limbs and a segmented body with an exoskeleton made of chitin

the period during which an embryo develops (about 266 days in humans)

of or near the head end or toward the front plane of the body(top)

tail end of bilaterally symmetric animals (bottom)

toward or on or near the belly (front of a primate or lower surface of a lower animal)

belonging to or on or near the back or upper surface of an animal or organ or part

Bilaterial Symetry
the animal can be divided into two halves. Most of the organs and organ systems are on either side of the midline.

Radial Symetry
body plan which animals bod are organized in a circle around a central axis

individual that has both male and female reproductive organs

In animal development, a series of cell and tissue movements in which the blastula-stage embryo folds inward, producing a three-layered embryo, the gastrula.

The 3 germ layers
endoderm, mesoderm, ectoderm

the inner germ layer that develops into the lining of the digestive and respiratory systems

the middle germ layer that develops into muscle and bone and cartilage and blood and connective tissue

the outer germ layer that develops into skin and nervous tissue

Characteistics of the skeletal system
aids in movement, provides structure, produces blood cells

characteristics of respiratory system
gas exchange, responsible for maintaining blood oxygen levels

carries air between larynx and bronchi

two short branches located at the lower end of the trachea that carry air into the lungs.

tiny air chambers in the lungs that allow gases to be exchanged between the air and blood

large, flat muscle at the bottom of the chest cavity that helps with breathing

characteristics of the digestive system
mechanically and chemically digest food, breaks down food into smaller molecules that are usuable to other cells in the body

along with teeth begins the mechanical part of digestion

the concentration of sensory and brain structures in the anterior end of the animal

Digestive system
body system the breaks down food and absorbs nutrients

respiratory system
system responsible for taking in oxygen and releasing carbon dioxide using the lungs

internal skeleton or supporting framework in an animal

the exterior protective or supporting structure or shell of many animals (especially invertebrates) ex. insects, crawfish

large muscular sac that continues the mechanical and chemical digestion of food

small intestine
The part of the digestive system in which most chemical digestion takes place

organ that makes bile to break down fats; also filters poisons and drugs out of the blood

a muscular sac attached to the liver that secretes bile and stores it until needed for digestion

a triangular organ that produces enzymes that flow into the small intestine

Large intestine
beginning with the cecum and ending with the rectum, the last section of the digestive system, where water is absorbed from food and the remaining material is eliminated from the body

systems that make up the excretory system
respiratory, digestive, urinary, Integumentary

Nervous system
made up of the brain and spinal cord

the lobes of the brain that integrate sensory information and coordinate the creature’s response to that information

the “little brain” attached to the rear of the brainstem; its functions include processing sensory input and coordinating movement output and balance

Medula Oblongata
part of brain stem connecting brain to spinal cord, controls respiration and heartbeat