Biology final study guide

biotic
something that is living, was once living, or comes from something living
abiotic
nonliving, physical features of the environment, including air, water, sunlight, soil, temperature, and climate
nitrification
the process by which nitrites and nitrates are produced by bacteria in the soil
carbon cycle
the circulation and reutilization of carbon atoms especially via the process of photosynthesis and respiration.
tundra
Treeless arctic or alpine biome characterized by cold, harsh winters, a short growing season, and potential for frost any month of the year; vegetation includes low-growing perennial plants, mosses and lichens
Tiaga
has long severe winters and short cool summers. temperature only reaches 50 degrees F. Recieves 20 inches of percipatation per year (mostly snow) it has pine trees, spruses, fir trees, conifer trees, moose, wolves, and deer.
Temperate decidous forest
characterized by trees that lose all of their leaves in the fall, characterized by hardwood trees, and broad leaved trees and shrubs
Temperate grasslands
too dry for forests, too moist for deserts, grasses and other flowering plants, wild horses, asses, and antelope, bison, kangaroos, antelopes, and other large herbivores
Deserts
dry areas where precipitation is less than 30cm a year, succulent plants (cactus) and scattered grasses
Savannas
a region of grassland with scattered trees lying between the equatorial forest and the hot deserts in either hemisphere.
Tropical Rainforest
In this biome it rains almost everyday. Temperatures are high with little difference between day and night temperatures. There are more organisms living here than anywhere else on Earth.
Archaebacteria
bacteria that live under extreme conditions such as: high temperature, high salt content, and low oxygen, considered to be the most ancient organisms on the planet,
Eubacteria
known as “true bacteria”, largest of the two bacterial kingdoms, contains disease causing bacteria
viruses
tiny non-living particles , smaller than bacteria and other pathogens, which must invade living cells in order to reproduce; when they invade, the cells are damaged or destroyed in the process releasing new particles to infect other cells
cells
The basic unit of all living things
vertebrates
animals with a backbone
invertebrates
Animals without backbones
Linnaeus
called founder of modern taxonomy; Invented binomial nomenclature
taxonomy
practice of classifying plants and animals according to their presumed natural relationships
binomial nominclature
the system of naming organisms by using their genus species classifications.
Kingdom
First and largest category used to classify organisms
Phylum or division
major classification, second to kingdom, of plants and animals; category ranking below a kingdom and above a class; division
Class
in a traditional taxonomic system, the category contained within a phylum or division and containing orders
order
taxonomic group containing one or more families
Family
In classification, the taxonomic category above genus.
Genus
a classification grouping that contains similar, closely related organisms, contains 1 or more species.
Species
a group of organisms so similar to one another that they can breed and produce fertile offspring
Phylogeny
(biology) the sequence of events involved in the evolutionary development of a species or taxonomic group of organisms
Protista
eukaryotic one-celled living organisms distinct from multicellular plants and animals: protozoa, slime molds, and eukaryotic algae
Fungi
a kingdom of eukaryotic organisms. They are heterotrophic and digest their food externally, absorbing nutrient molecules into their cells. Yeasts, molds, and mushrooms are examples.
Plantae
a classification kingdom made up of eukaryotic, multicellular organisms that have cell walls made mostly of cellulose, that have pigments that absorb light, and that supply energy and oxygen to themselves and to other life-forms through photosynthesis
Animalia
Kingdom of the most complex organisms; multi-cellular, heterotrophic, lack rigid cell walls, mobile, tissues in internal organs, sensory organs, nervous system
Ecology
scientific study of interactions among organisms and between organisms and their environment
organism
a living thing that has (or can develop) the ability to act or function independently
population
a group of organisms of the same species populating a given area
community
(ecology) a group of interdependent organisms inhabiting the same region and interacting with each other
ecosystem
a system formed by the interaction of a community of organisms with their physical environment
biosphere
the regions of the surface and atmosphere of the Earth (or other planet) where living organisms exist
limiting factors
any biotic or abiotic factor that restricts the existence, numbers, reproduction, or distribution of organisms, ex. carrying capacity of land, disease, population density, population distribution
commensilism
a symbiotic relationship that benifits one organism without harming the other
mutualism
symbiotic relationship in which both species benefit from the relationship
parasitism
the relation between two different kinds of organisms in which one receives benefits from the other by causing damage to it (usually not fatal damage)
predation
interaction in which one organism captures and feeds on another organism, usually killing the prey.
Primary succession
an ecological succession that begins in a an area where no biotic community previously existed
Secondary succession
Sequence of community changes that take place after a community is disrupted by natural disasters or human actions.
Climax community
a relatively stable long-lasting community reached in a successional series; usually determined by climax and soil type
Primary producer
An autotroph, usually a photosynthetic organism. Collectively, autotrophs make up the trophic level of an ecosystem that ultimately supports all other levels.
Primary consumer
An herbivore; an organism in the trophic level of an ecosystem that eats plants or algae
Secondary consumer
Organism that feeds only on primary consumers.
tertiary consumer
a member of the trophic level of an ecosystem consisting of carnivores that eat mainly other carnivores.
autotroph
organism that can capture energy from sunlight or chemicals and use it to produce its own food from inorganic compounds; also called a producer
heterotroph
organism that obtains energy from the foods it consumes; also called a consumer
comsumer
an organism that eats other organisms or organic matter instead of producing its own nutrients or obtaining nutrients from inorganic sources
producer
an organism that makes its own food
decomposer
organism that breaks down the wastes or remains of other organisms
Water cycle
the continuous process by which water moves from Earth’s surface to the atmosphere and back
Transpiration
the emission of water vapor from the leaves of plants
condensation
the process by which molecules of water vapor in the air become liquid water
runoff
water that flows over the ground surface rather than soaking into the ground
Precipitation
the falling to earth of any form of water (rain or snow or hail or sleet or mist)
Evaporation
the process by which water changes from liquid form to an atmospheric gas
Nitrification
the process by which nitrites and nitrates are produced by bacteria in the soil
nitrogen fixation
The assimilation of atmospheric nitrogen by certain bacteria into nitrogenous compounds that can be directly used by plants.
Ammonification
the formation of ammonia compounds in the soil by the action of bacteria on decaying matter
Denitrification
process in which fixed nitrogen compounds are converted back into nitrogen gas and returned to the atmosphere
Cellular respiration
the process by which cells obtain energy from carbohydrates; atmospheric oxygen combines with glucose to form water and carbon dioxide
Photosynthesis
process where organisms use the suns energy, carbondioxide, and water to produce oxygen and glucose.
Notochord
A longitudinal rod of cells that forms in the least developed chordates and in embryonic stages of more developed chordates.
Chordates
comprises true vertebrates and animals having a notochord, the group of animals that have a notochord at some point in their lives.
Segmentation
Division of an animal body along its length into a series of repeated parts called segments
Arthropod
invertebrate having jointed limbs and a segmented body with an exoskeleton made of chitin
Gestation
the period during which an embryo develops (about 266 days in humans)
Anterior
of or near the head end or toward the front plane of the body(top)
Posterior
tail end of bilaterally symmetric animals (bottom)
Ventral
toward or on or near the belly (front of a primate or lower surface of a lower animal)
Dorsal
belonging to or on or near the back or upper surface of an animal or organ or part
Bilaterial Symetry
the animal can be divided into two halves. Most of the organs and organ systems are on either side of the midline.
Radial Symetry
body plan which animals bod are organized in a circle around a central axis
Hermaphrodite
individual that has both male and female reproductive organs
Gastrulation
In animal development, a series of cell and tissue movements in which the blastula-stage embryo folds inward, producing a three-layered embryo, the gastrula.
The 3 germ layers
endoderm, mesoderm, ectoderm
Endoderm
the inner germ layer that develops into the lining of the digestive and respiratory systems
Mesoderm
the middle germ layer that develops into muscle and bone and cartilage and blood and connective tissue
ectoderm
the outer germ layer that develops into skin and nervous tissue
Characteistics of the skeletal system
aids in movement, provides structure, produces blood cells
characteristics of respiratory system
gas exchange, responsible for maintaining blood oxygen levels
Trachea
carries air between larynx and bronchi
bronchi
two short branches located at the lower end of the trachea that carry air into the lungs.
Aveoli
tiny air chambers in the lungs that allow gases to be exchanged between the air and blood
Diaphram
large, flat muscle at the bottom of the chest cavity that helps with breathing
characteristics of the digestive system
mechanically and chemically digest food, breaks down food into smaller molecules that are usuable to other cells in the body
Mouth
along with teeth begins the mechanical part of digestion
Cephalization
the concentration of sensory and brain structures in the anterior end of the animal
Digestive system
body system the breaks down food and absorbs nutrients
respiratory system
system responsible for taking in oxygen and releasing carbon dioxide using the lungs
endoskeleton
internal skeleton or supporting framework in an animal
exoskeleton
the exterior protective or supporting structure or shell of many animals (especially invertebrates) ex. insects, crawfish
stomach
large muscular sac that continues the mechanical and chemical digestion of food
small intestine
The part of the digestive system in which most chemical digestion takes place
Liver
organ that makes bile to break down fats; also filters poisons and drugs out of the blood
Gallbladder
a muscular sac attached to the liver that secretes bile and stores it until needed for digestion
Pancreas
a triangular organ that produces enzymes that flow into the small intestine
Large intestine
beginning with the cecum and ending with the rectum, the last section of the digestive system, where water is absorbed from food and the remaining material is eliminated from the body
systems that make up the excretory system
respiratory, digestive, urinary, Integumentary
Nervous system
made up of the brain and spinal cord
Cerebrum
the lobes of the brain that integrate sensory information and coordinate the creature’s response to that information
Cerebellum
the “little brain” attached to the rear of the brainstem; its functions include processing sensory input and coordinating movement output and balance
Medula Oblongata
part of brain stem connecting brain to spinal cord, controls respiration and heartbeat