Biology: Cellular Processes

What do scanning electron microscopes and transmission electron microscopes have in common?
Both generate three-dimensional images.
Both offer magnification to the atomic level.
Both are used to view the parts of a cell.
Both require a vacuum.
vacuum
According to the cell theory, which structure contains cells?
blood
water
carbon dioxide
chromosome
blood
The study of which structure was instrumental in the formulation of the modern cell theory?
plant cell
animal cell
cell membrane
DNA molecule
DNA molecule
Which is a part of the cell theory?
cells come from pre-existing cells
cells have a nucleus
organisms with one cell must be seen with a microscope
organisms must have more than one cell to live
pre-existing cells
Which microscope uses a series of lenses to magnify an object in steps?
electron microscope
simple microscope
compound light microscope
scanning microscope
compound light
Which statement best explains why cells were observed in more detail using a compound microscope than a simple microscope?
A compound microscope has greater magnification ability than a simple microscope.
The compound microscope was invented before the simple microscope.
A compound microscope is much easier to manufacture than a simple microscope.
Compound microscopes were more common than simple microscopes.
compound has greater magnification ability
What was Rudolph Virchow’s contribution to the cell theory?
He concluded that all cells come from preexisting cells.
He concluded that cells are the basic units of structure and function of all living things.
He concluded that all organisms are composed of cells.
He concluded that all cells are similar in composition and metabolic activities.
all cells come from pre-existing cells
Which microscope is often used to view metal surfaces?
scanning electron microscope
scanning tunneling microscope
transmission electron microscope
compound light microscope
scanning tunneling
Which experiments led to changes to the original cell theory?
experiments that showed that blood cells transport gases, waste, and nutrients throughout the body
experiments that showed that all cells are similar in how they metabolize and in their composition
experiments that transplanted synthetic chromosomes into bacterial cells to create a new species
experiments that established the existence of single-celled organisms and microbes
experiments that showed that all cells are similar in how they metabolize and in their composition
Which microscope did Anton van Leeuwenhoek use to observe single-celled organisms?
simple microscope
compound light microscope
electron microscope
tunneling microscope
simple
Which discovery supported the endosymbiotic theory?
DNA in mitochondria
DNA in the cell nucleus
DNA in ribosomes
DNA in the cytoplasm
mitochondria
Based on the endosymbiotic theory, what cell would result from the endosymbiosis of a cell with a cyanobacterium?
a eukaryotic cell that can make its own food
a prokaryotic cell that can make its own food
an aerobic bacterium
an anaerobic bacterium
euk. can make own food
which statement is least likely to support the endosymbiotic theory?
Mitochondria and chloroplasts reproduce independently from the cell.
Mitochondria and chloroplasts contain their own ribosomes.
Mitochondria and chloroplasts have DNA that resembles bacterial DNA.
Mitochondria and chloroplasts are much larger than prokaryotic cells.
much larger than prok. cells
Which structure is unique to eukaryotic cells?
DNA
cell membrane
ribosomes
nucleus
nucleus
The discovery of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) had no effect on which area of scientific investigation?
endosymbiotic theory
inheritance research
forensic science
study of cork bark
cork bark
A scientist is studying a cell and can clearly see that it has ribosomes and mitochondria. Which statement best describes how the cell could be classified?
The cell is prokaryotic because it contains ribosomes.
The cell is prokaryotic because it contains mitochondria.
The cell is eukaryotic because it contains ribosomes.
The cell is eukaryotic because it contains mitochondria
euk, contains mitochondria
What is the basic unit of structure and function of all living organisms?
mitochondrion
DNA
nucleus
cell
cell
The endosymbiotic theory helps to explain the origin of which structures?
mitochondria
ribosomes
nuclei
cell membranes
mitochondria
A student wonders whether removing the nucleus from a cell would result in a new prokaryotic cell. Why would this procedure fail to produce a prokaryotic cell?
The cell would lack genetic information.
The cell would lack the structure that is needed to produce proteins.
The cell would lack the structure that is needed to protect the cell’s organelles.
The cell would lack control over materials that move into and out of the cell.
lack genetic information
Which best describes mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA)?
Mitochondrial DNA is the same as nuclear DNA.
Mitochondrial DNA is inherited through the father.
Mitochondrial DNA can be traced for generations.
Mitochondrial DNA requires large amounts for testing
traced for generations
For diffusion to occur, which condition must be met?
A concentration gradient must exist.
A hypotonic external environment is required.
A hypertonic external environment is required.
Dynamic equilibrium must exist.
A concentration gradient must exist
Which solution would most likely cause a plant placed in it to become firmer and more rigid?
hypertonic
hypotonic
isotonic
osmotic
hypontonic
Which adaptation is used by polar bears to maintain internal homeostasis in cold temperatures?
three layers of fur
blubber
finding shade underground
white skin
three layers of fur
Which homeostatic process moves particles against a concentration gradient?
dynamic equilibrium
passive transport
osmosis
active transport
active transport
In which solution might a cell maintain homeostasis through diffusion?
isotonic
hypertonic
hypotonic
concentrated
isotonic
Which movement of particles would be most affected by a disorder that causes damage to carrier proteins?
osmosis
isotonic
active transport
diffusion
active transport
Which reason best explains why the cell membrane helps the cell maintain homeostasis?
The cell membrane is selectively permeable.
The cell membrane is composed of lipids and phosphates.
The cell membrane is both hydrophilic and hydrophobic.
The cell membrane is a bilayer structure.
the cell membrane is selectively permeable
Reptiles and birds excrete waste as an insoluble white solid that is called uric acid. How does this help them to maintain internal homeostasis in hot climates?
by retaining water
by conserving energy
by reducing body temperature
by maintaining heart rate
by retaining water
Water makes up a large percentage of the body’s cells. For a cell to remain in homeostasis, there must be a mechanism to control water changes in the cells. The movement of water from an area of high water concentration to an area of low water concentration is
osmosis
Which best describes dynamic equilibrium?
There is a difference in concentration on either side of the cell membrane.
There is an uneven distribution of particles inside and outside the cell.
Particles are moving into and out of the cell, but their concentrations remain stable.
A concentration gradient is forcing water out of the cell and particles into the cell.
Particles are moving…remain stable
Which are replicated during interphase?
sister chromatids
chromosomes
centromeres
nuclei
chromosomes
Which is the end result of cytokinesis?
one cell that has two identical copies of DNA
one cell that has two different copies of DNA
two cells that have two identical copies of DNA
two cells that have two different copies of DNA
two cells that have two identical copies of DNA
Centromeres split apart during
anaphase
What would happen to skin cells if mitosis did not take place?
Skin cells would regrow from other types of cells.
Skin cells would be replaced at a slower rate.
Skin cells would be replaced with new cells.
Skin cells would die and not be replaced.
skin cells would die and not be replaced
An example of mitosis at work is a leaf
turning yellow.
growing.
taking in carbon dioxide.
hosting a caterpillar.
growing
Which of the steps in this sequence of events is an example of mitosis at work?
A baseball hits the arm of a baseball player.
The player reacts quickly grabbing his arm.
A bruise forms where the ball hit the arm.
The bruise slowly disappears as the arm heals.
bruise slowly disappears as the arm heals
Scientists use tissue cultures to study possible medicines that can be used to treat cancer patients. What is one benefit of this procedure?
Patients do not receive harmful or ineffective medication.
The cultured cells are not in their normal environment.
Doctors know how to treat all types of cancer.
One tissue culture can be used for all cancer patients.
patients do not receive harmful or ineffective meds
An example of mitosis at work is a plant root
elongating.
absorbing.
pointing down.
breaking.
elongating
Which best describes the importance of mitosis to living organisms?
genetic variation and growth
growth and development
development and sexual reproduction
sexual reproduction and genetic variation
growth and development
During which phase of mitosis do the nuclear membrane, nucleolus, and nucleus dissolve?
metaphase
prophase
anaphase
telophase
prophase
Which best describes meiosis?
It produces cells that are identical to the original cell.
It is responsible for the replacement of damaged skin cells.
It is responsible for growth of the organism.
It produces male and female sex cells.
it produces male and female sex cells
During which phase of meiosis does crossing over of chromosomes occur?
prophase I
metaphase I
anaphase I
telophase I
prophase I
Why is meiosis important for organisms?
It allows for genetic variation among organisms.
It determines which genes are dominant and which are recessive.
It produces genetically identical cells.
It provides a means of asexual reproduction.
allows for genetic variation among organisms
Which discovery did Gregor Mendel make?
Traits are inherited independently of each other.
Traits are inherited as a tetrad.
Traits are inherited as homologous pairs.
Traits are inherited as a set, from one parent.
independently of each other
The diagram illustrates one method of genetic recombination.

paternal maternal
AA aa
Aa Aa
AA aa
Aa Aa

Which method of genetic recombination is illustrated in the diagram?
crossing over
independent assortment
fertilization
tetrad formation

crossing over
How many cell divisions occur during meiosis?
one
two
three
four
two
Which process of genetic recombination involves genes from both parents?
crossing over
independent assortment
fertilization
tetrad formation
fertilization
Which best illustrates how Gregor Mendel used creativity that lead to scientific discovery?
He noticed that traits were passed on from parents to offspring.
He chose a parent generation and carefully studied its traits.
He used pea plants to study the patterns of heredity.
He observed how specific traits were passed from parent to offspring.
pea plants to study patterns of heredity
Which three processes are methods of genetic recombination?
natural selection, crossing over, and independent assortment
crossing over, independent assortment, and fertilization
independent assortment, fertilization, and natural selection
fertilization, natural selection, and crossing over
crossing over, independent assortment, fertilization
In his study of pea plants, Gregor Mendel used which method to produce offspring?
cross-pollination, by using parents that had identical traits
cross-pollination, by using parents that had different traits
self-pollination, by using one parent
random pollination, by using both identical- and different-trait matings
cross-pollination, by using parents that had different traits
Which is a disadvantage of asexual reproduction?
mutation accumulation
genetic variation
slow reproduction process
mate required
mutation accumulation
Mitosis produces which cell type?
haploid
diploid
chromosome
gamete
diploid
Which process can be described as two cell divisions, genetic variation, and haploid cells?
meiosis
mitosis
binary fission
fertilization
meiosis
Which process must the cell undergo to have genetically different cells at the end of cell division?
meiosis
mitosis
asexual reproduction
binary fission
meiosis
Scientists studied reproduction in the New Zealand mud snail to answer the question, “Are there benefits to reproducing sexually or asexually?” Which of these hypotheses would least likely aid the scientists as they worked to answer the question?
Sexual reproduction is advantageous over asexual reproduction because it reduces the rate of mutation accumulation.
Asexual reproduction is advantageous over sexual reproduction because it allows the snails to produce more offspring.
Sexual reproduction is advantageous over asexual reproduction because it allows for snails to have increased genetic variation.
Asexual reproduction is advantageous over sexual reproduction because it decreases the snails’ need for social interaction.
Asexual reproduction is advantageous over sexual reproduction because it decreases the snails’ need for social interaction.
In which type of reproduction can cells divide through the process of mitosis?
chromosome duplication
sexual reproduction
gamete formation
asexual reproduction
asexual
Which of these pairings is correct?
mitosis, part of asexual reproduction because it produces diploids
mitosis, part of sexual reproduction because it produces haploids
meiosis, part of asexual reproduction because it produces haploids
meiosis, part of sexual reproduction because it produces diploids
mitosis, part of asexual reproduction because it produces diploids
Which describes the process of a bacterial cell dividing to create two daughter cells?
binary fission
fertilization
meiosis
gamete formation
binary fission
A cell contains the same DNA as its parent cell. This is a result of which process?
mitosis
meiosis
gamete formation
fertilization
mitosis
Meiosis produces which cell type?
haploid
diploid
chromosome
somatic
haploid
All the major organs of the body are formed by week 10 of gestation. Which process makes this possible?
growth
fertilization
self-renewal
differentiation
differentiation
When a disease-causing agent enters an organism, the immune system alerts which specialized cells?
red blood cells
epithelial cells
white blood cells
somatic stem cells
white blood cells
Which statement best describes embryonic stem cells?
Embryonic stem cells are capable of self-renewal only.
Embryonic stem cells are capable of differentiation only.
Embryonic stem cells are capable of self-renewal and limited differentiation.
Embryonic stem cells are capable of self-renewal and unlimited differentiation.
self renewel and unlimited differentiation
Gene expression within the body is controlled by the cells, which determine when a specific gene should or should not be expressed. Influenza (the flu) is caused by a virus that attacks the respiratory system. Which type of gene is likely to be widely expressed in the body of someone who contracts the influenza virus?
The gene that controls production of stem cells.
The gene that controls production of skin cells.
The gene that controls production of red blood cells.
The gene that controls production of white blood cells.
white blood cells
_______ are a source of stem cells that has the characteristics of self-renewal and limited differentiation.
amnoitic fluid
Which cells are considered immortal?
neurons
blood cells
cardiac muscle cells
stem cells
stem
Which cell is unspecialized?
blood cell
stem cell
epithelial cell
gamete
stem
Which series lists the stages of development in the gestational process in order, from beginning to end?
gametes ® embryo ® zygote ® fetus ® organism
gametes ® zygote ® embryo ® fetus ® organism
embryo ® gametes ® zygote ® fetus ® organism
zygote ® gametes ® embryo ® fetus ® organism
gametes ® zygote ® embryo ® fetus ® organism
Which best describes embryonic stem cells?
They are capable of self-renewal only.
They are capable of differentiation only.
They are capable of self-renewal and limited differentiation.
They are capable of self-renewal and unlimited differentiation
They are capable of self-renewal and unlimited differentiation ( same as above )
Which of these pairings is incorrect?
blood cells, components of blood
neurons, conduct electrical impulses
epithelial cells, react to stimuli
muscle cells, elongated cells that can contract
epithelial
A species of mud snail was studied for five years. During this time, scientists observed the season in which they mated, the number of offspring they produced, and the results of such stressors as drought, famine, and lack of mates. Which question were the scientists most likely studying?
What is the food source most often chosen by the mud snail?
Are mud snails able to reproduce both asexually and sexually?
Are mud snails more likely to choose mates with colorful shells?
Do mud snails prefer to live in water or near a water source?
reproduce both asexually and sexually?
Which two microscopes generate three-dimensional images?
scanning electron microscope and scanning tunneling microscope
transmission electron microscope and scanning electron microscope
scanning tunneling microscope and transmission electron microscope
compound light microscope and scanning electron microscope
SEM and scanning tunneling
Rapid reproduction is an advantage of which process?
gamete formation
sexual reproduction
asexual reproduction
chromosome duplicatio
asexual
Tissue cultures (samples of cancer cells) are taken from cancer patients, and the cells are then grown in a laboratory. What is the purpose of growing cancer cells in a laboratory?
to test medicinal treatments before giving them to patients
to replace cancer cells with healthy cells
to provide evidence of cancer cells in the patient
to stop the cancer from growing in the patien
test medicinal…to patients
Fewer offspring is a disadvantage of which form of reproduction?
mitosis
asexual reproduction
binary fission
sexual reproduction
sexual
Smooth muscle, a type of specialized muscle cell, functions in which process?
food digestion
skeletal movement
pumping of blood
heart contraction
food digestion
Chlorophyll is found in plant leaves and absorbs light from the sun to enable plants to perform photosynthesis. Magnesium is an important component of chlorophyll. The concentration of magnesium ions is higher in the root-hair cells of plants than in the soil. Which mechanism of ion uptake would best enable a plant to produce a steady supply of chlorophyll?
osmosis
diffusion
passive transport
active transport
active transport
Which homeostatic process is characterized by the diffusion of water molecules?
active transport
osmosis
passive transport
dynamic equilibrium
osmosis
A patient is in need of hydration. Which type of solution are the patient’s cells most likely in?
hypotonic
hypertonic
isotonic
osmotic
hypertonic
Which best defines a diploid cell during meiosis?
a cell that has double the number of chromosomes as the parent cell
a cell that has half the number of chromosomes as the parent cell
a cell that has double the number of chromosomes as the daughter cell
a cell that has half the number of chromosomes as the daughter cell
double number of chromosomes as daughter cell
Based on the data in the graph, which would most likely happen if the paramecium were placed in distilled water?
The contractions would increase.
The contractions would decrease.
The contractions would cease altogether.
The contractions would establish dynamic equilibrium.
Increase
Which series of diagrams correctly represents the order of mitosis?
a
Which statement best summarizes the importance of meiosis to reproduction?
It produces diploid cells that are needed for sexual reproduction.
It produces diploid cells that are needed for asexual reproduction.
It produces gametes that are needed for sexual reproduction.
It produces gametes that are needed for asexual reproduction.
gametes; sexual
A new multicellular organism has been discovered, and scientists want to study the organism’s cell structures, including organelles. Which microscope should they use?
scanning electron microscope
transmission electron microscope
compound light microscope
simple microscope
transmission electron microscope
Which part of cell division is different in plant and animal cells?
cytokinesis
anaphase
mitosis
eukaryotic
cytokinesis
Which correctly describes crossing over?
the process whereby nonsister chromatids exchange genetic material
the process whereby homologous chromosomes are pulled to opposite poles of the cell
the process whereby sister chromatids are pulled to opposite poles of the cell
the process whereby homologous chromosome pairs align randomly along the metaphase plate
the process whereby homologous chromosomes are pulled to opposite poles of the cell
Which best describes the cell theory?
Scientists know all there is to know about cells, so the cell theory will not change.
As technological advancements are made, the cell theory may change.
A theory, once formulated, cannot be changed.
The development of a synthetic cell has caused the cell theory to change
cell theory may change
Which process helps make meiotic cells genetically different and occurs during prophase I, but not during prophase II?
crossing over
A magnifying glass is an example of which type of microscope?
electron microscope
scanning microscope
compound light microscope
simple microscope
simple
How has the study of mitosis affected scientists’ knowledge of cancer?
It led to a study of how to induce cancer cells to divide more rapidly.
It led to an understanding of how cancer cells divide so rapidly.
It led to the development of contact-inhibition regulators.
It led to the discovery of how to prevent cancer cells from dividing
understanding of how
Which statement correctly describes the bars on a bar graph representing the data?
The graph has five bars of equal height.
The bars range from tallest for very high concentration to shortest for very low concentration.
The bar for very low concentration is twice the height of the bar for medium concentration.
The bar for very high concentration is five times the height of the bar for very low concentration.
c
Which does the letter A represent in the diagram?
centriole
chromosome
centromere
spindle
spindle
Which specialized cells are responsible for transmitting messages throughout the body?
neurons
epithelial cells
blood cells
muscle cells
neurons
Which best defines homeostasis?
modifying the external environment
maintaining a stable internal environment
controlling what enters and exits the cell
movement of materials into the cell
stable internal environment
Scientists use squid nerve cells in research because the nerve cells of a squid are 1,000 times fatter than those of a human. How is the outcome of nerve cell research most likely to be affected if scientists were to study human nerve cells directly?
The outcome would be different because humans and squids are very different.
The outcome would be different because the nerve cells in squids are much larger than those of humans.
The outcome would be the same because in both cases a nerve cell is being researched.
The outcome would be the same because genes in squids and humans are 85 percent identical
same, in both cases a nerve cell is being researched
How is mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) typing used in forensic science?
An unknown mtDNA sample is matched to a sample of nuclear DNA that was found at a crime scene.
An unknown mtDNA sample is matched to a sample of mtDNA that was found at a crime scene.
An unknown nuclear DNA sample is matched to a sample of nuclear DNA that was found at a crime scene.
An unknown nuclear DNA sample is matched to a sample of mtDNA that was found at a crime scene.
mtDNA; mtDNA
A scientist discovers a cell that has chloroplasts, cytoplasm, DNA, and a cell membrane. Which statement best describes how the cell could be classified?
The cell is prokaryotic because it has DNA.
The cell is prokaryotic because it has cytoplasm.
The cell is eukaryotic because it has a cell membrane.
The cell is eukaryotic because it has chloroplasts
euk, chloroplasts
Which best describes reproduction?
Asexual reproduction produces offspring that are identical to the parent.
Sexual reproduction allows for diploid gametes to combine to increase genetic variation.
Asexual reproduction leads to the formation of haploid gametes.
Sexual reproduction does not require the production of gametes
asexual; identical
Which process is similar to binary fission?
genetic variation
crossing over
meiosis
mitosis
mitosis
Which process produces clones?
asexual reproduction
sexual reproduction
chromosome duplication
gamete formation
chromosome duplication
Which statement is one component of the cell theory?
All living and nonliving things consist of one or more cells.
Cells and living organisms are spontaneously created.
Cells are the most complex unit of structure and function in living things.
A cell is the basic unit of structure and function of all organisms
all living or nonliving…or more cells
Which stem cells are capable of the most limited differentiation?
adult stem cells
amniotic fluid stem cells
embryonic stem cells
somatic stem cells
embryonic
What is the end result of meiosis?
four identical daughter cells
four different daughter cells
two identical daughter cells
two different daughter cells
4 diff daughter cells
Who first recognized the cell as the universal unit of life?
Virchow
van Leeuwenhoek
Hooke
Schleiden and Schwann
Schleiden and Schwann
What is the step that is labeled D?
metaphase I
metaphase II
telophase II
telophase I
metaphase I
How many more phases occur during meiosis than during mitosis?
none
two
four
six
four
In the study of cancer, researchers have used different types of cells, different environmental conditions, and different experimental designs. But, all researchers have arrived at the same conclusion. What does this say about the conclusion?
It is well supported.
It is weakly supported.
It is inconclusive.
It is refuted
well supported
How would the contractile vacuole of a freshwater amoeba respond if the organism was placed in seawater?
with more contractions
with fewer contractions
the contractions would suddenly cease
with the same frequency of contractions
more
The endosymbiotic theory provides an explanation for the origin of chloroplasts. Which trait of chloroplasts supports this explanation?
Chloroplasts do not reproduce.
Chloroplasts rely on proteins that are made by the cell.
Chloroplasts are larger than prokaryotic cells.
Chloroplasts have their own DNA
own DNA
How does interphase prepare cells for mitosis?
rest prior to cell division
growth of cell and replication of DNA
dissolution of nucleus and cell membrane
division of cytoplasm
growth of cell, DNA