Biology: Cell Structure & Function Review Study Guide/ Key Concept

– All living things are composed of one or more cells.
– The cell is the smallest unit having the properties of life.
– The continuity of life arises directly from the growth and reproduction of single cells.
State the 3 key points of the Cell Theory.
1. Plasma Membrane
2. Cytoplasm
3. Nucleiod Region or Nucleus
Name the 3 features that all cells have in common.
– Is the outermost membrane of the cell.
– It maintains the cell as a distinct entity/ unit of life.
Describe the Plasma Membrane feature that all cells have in common.
– The semi-fluid matrix of a cell.
– Is found between the Plasma Membrane and Nucleiod Region or Nucleus.
Describe the Cytoplasm feature that all cells have in common.
Depending of the species…
Nucleiod Region – The DNA occupies the region of the Cytoplasm.
Nucleus – Is surrounded by a membrane.
Describe the Nucleiod Region or Nucleus feature that all cells have in common.
No, their appearance remain changing during a cell’s life.
Do chromosomes always have the same appearance during a cell’s life?
– All plants, fungi, bacteria and many protistans
Cell Walls are typical of the cells of which organism?
– Prokaryotic Cells DO NOT have a Nucleus
– Eukaryotic Cells DO have a Nucleus
What are the key differences between Prokaryotic Cells and Eukaryotic Cells?
– Smallest unit of life
– Prokaryotic/ Eukaryotic Cell
What is a Cell?
- Comes in all shape, sizes and color.
- Depends on what organism it is.
– Comes in all shape, sizes and color.
– Depends on what organism it is.
What do cells look like?
- Do NOT have a nucleus, nor do they contain any other membrane-bound Organelle.
- Simplest cell (Smallest cell).
- DNA is not enclosed in a Nucleus.
- Have a Plasma Membrane and Cytoplasm.
– Do NOT have a nucleus, nor do they contain any other membrane-bound Organelle.
– Simplest cell (Smallest cell).
– DNA is not enclosed in a Nucleus.
– Have a Plasma Membrane and Cytoplasm.
What is a Prokaryotic Cell?
– ALL bacteria cells are Prokaryotic.
Two kingdoms of Prokaryotic Celled organism
– Archeabacteria
– Eubacteria
What organisms are Prokaryotic Cells?
– May take up as much as 50 – 90% of the cell interior.
– It allows the cell to maintain its turgidity and stiffness.
What are the functions of the Central Vacuole?
- Cells that have a membrane-bound Nucleus and other membrane-bound organelles in the Cytoplasm.
- Specialized structures that make up the cell and preform functions essential for survival.
- ALL Eukaryotic Cells contain organelle.
– Cells that have a membrane-bound Nucleus and other membrane-bound organelles in the Cytoplasm.
– Specialized structures that make up the cell and preform functions essential for survival.
– ALL Eukaryotic Cells contain organelle.
What is a Eukaryotic Cell?
– You either have a Nucleus or once had a Nucleus.
What organism have Eukaryotic Cells?
– Plasma Membrane
– Cytoplasm
– Nucleiod Region or Nucleus
What do cells have in common?
– Organelles amount to a degree of compartmentalization and therefore a type of specialization.
– The compartmentalization allows a large number of activities to occur simultaneously in a very limited space.
– Physically separate chemical reactions, many of which are incompatible with each other.
What is the biological significance of Organelles?
– All living things are composed of one or more cells.
– The cell is the smallest unit having the properties of life.
– The continuity of life arises directly from the growth and reproduction of single cells.
What are the basic tenets of the “Cell Theory”?
– Robert Hooke
– Antony Van Leeuwenhoek
– Robert Brown
* – Matthias Schliedeh
* – Theodor Schwann
* – Rudolf Virchow
Who developed the “Cell Theory”?
– Chromatin – Thin and threadlike, has a diffuse granny appearance (not dividing).
– Chromosomes – Condenses and shortens into identifiable rod-shaped structure (undergo dividing).
What is the difference between Chromatin and Chromosomes?
– Is the outermost membrane of the cell.
What is a Plasma Membrane?
- The semi-fluid matrix of the cell.
– The semi-fluid matrix of the cell.
What is Cytoplasm?
- Generally the largest and most conspicuous structural area within the cell.
FUNCTIONS TO:
- Plays a central role in Cellular Respiration.
- Plays a key role on determining what the cell wall becomes and what form it will have at maturity.
- Directs the metabolic activities of the cell.
- In summary - It basically controls the life process of the cell.
– Generally the largest and most conspicuous structural area within the cell.
FUNCTIONS TO:
– Plays a central role in Cellular Respiration.
– Plays a key role on determining what the cell wall becomes and what form it will have at maturity.
– Directs the metabolic activities of the cell.
– In summary – It basically controls the life process of the cell.
Describe the structure and functions of the following Eukaryotic Organelles… Nucelus.
- Exists as flattened , fluid-filled, membrane-enclosed sacs.
- The rough appearance is due to many ribosomes being embedded in the membranes.
– Exists as flattened , fluid-filled, membrane-enclosed sacs.
– The rough appearance is due to many ribosomes being embedded in the membranes.
Describe the stucture and functions of the following Eukaryotic Organelles… Rough Enodoplasmic Reticulum.
- Does not have Ribosomes embedded in it.
- Has much more or a tubular appearance.
FUNCTIONS TO:
- Synthesize membrane phospholipids.
- To package proteins in vessels for transport.
- As sites for chemical reactions.
– Does not have Ribosomes embedded in it.
– Has much more or a tubular appearance.
FUNCTIONS TO:
– Synthesize membrane phospholipids.
– To package proteins in vessels for transport.
– As sites for chemical reactions.
Describe the structure and functions of the following Eukaryotic Organelles… Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum.
- They appear like a stack or plates or pancakes.
FUNCTION TO:
- Modify lipids and proteins
- Sort, packages, and ships to specific locations of the cell or out of the cell.
– They appear like a stack or plates or pancakes.
FUNCTION TO:
– Modify lipids and proteins
– Sort, packages, and ships to specific locations of the cell or out of the cell.
Describe the structure and functions of the following Eukaryotic Organelles… Golgi Bodies.
- Peanut of globular shaped.
- Referred to as the
– Peanut of globular shaped.
– Referred to as the “Powerhouse” of the cell.
Describe the structure and functions of the following Eukaryotic Organelles… Mitochondria.
- Oval or disk-shaped.
- Sac-like organelle used for storage
– Oval or disk-shaped.
– Sac-like organelle used for storage
Describe the structure and functions of the following Eukaryotic Organelles… Chloroplasts.
- Digest cellular debris, parts of cells or whole cells.
– Digest cellular debris, parts of cells or whole cells.
Describe the structure and functions of the following Eukaryotic Organelles… Lysosome.
- Red to yellow pigments
- Store photosynthesis pigments, other than Chlorophylls.
- Store Carotenoids
– Red to yellow pigments
– Store photosynthesis pigments, other than Chlorophylls.
– Store Carotenoids
Describe the structure and functions of the following Eukaryotic Organelles… Chromoplast.
- Are not colored
- They store starch grains
– Are not colored
– They store starch grains
Describe the structure and functions of the following Eukaryotic Organelles… Amyloplasts.
- They multiply in a cell via fission
– They multiply in a cell via fission
Describe the structure and functions of the following Eukaryotic Organelles… Peroxisome.