Biology (Biochemistry) Vocabulary

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pH
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p(otential of) H(ydrogen); the logarithm of the reciprocal of hydrogen-ion concentration in gram atoms per liter; provides a measure on a scale from 0 to 14 of the acidity or alkalinity of a solution (where 7 is neutral)
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Alkaline
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relating to or containing an alkali; having a pH greater than 7
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Cohesion
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the intermolecular force that holds together the molecules in a solid or liquid
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Adhesion
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the property of sticking together (as of glue and wood) or the joining of surfaces of different composition
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Enzyme
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any of several complex proteins that are produced by cells and act as catalysts in specific biochemical reactions
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Catalyst
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a substance that initiates or accelerates a chemical reaction without itself being affected
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Active site
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the part of an enzyme that interacts with the substrate during catalysis
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Substrate
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the substance acted upon by an enzyme or ferment
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Denature
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modify (as a native protein) especially by heat, acid, alkali, or ultraviolet radiation so that all of the original properties are removed or diminished
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Monomer
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a simple compound whose molecules can join together to form polymers
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Polymer
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a naturally occurring or synthetic compound consisting of large molecules made up of a linked series of repeated simple monomers
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Molecule
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the simplest structural unit of an element or compound
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Compound
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a substance formed by chemical union of two or more elements or ingredients in definite proportion by weight
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Carbohydrate
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an essential structural component of living cells and source of energy for animals; includes simple sugars with small molecules as well as macromolecular substances; are classified according to the number of monosaccharide groups they contain
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Hydrocarbon
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an organic compound containing only carbon and hydrogen
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Monosaccharide
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a sugar (like sucrose or fructose) that does not hydrolyse to give other sugars; the simplest group of carbohydrates
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Polysaccharide
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any of a class of carbohydrates whose molecules contain chains of monosaccharide molecules
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Lipid
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an oily organic compound insoluble in water but soluble in organic solvents; essential structural component of living cells (along with proteins and carbohydrates)
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Phospholipid
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any of various compounds composed of fatty acids and phosphoric acid and a nitrogenous base; an important constituent of membranes
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Hormone
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the secretion of an endocrine gland that is transmitted by the blood to the tissue on which it has a specific effect
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Steroid
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any of several fat-soluble organic compounds having as a basis 17 carbon atoms in four rings; many have important physiological effects
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Protein
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any of a large group of nitrogenous organic compounds that are essential constituents of living cells; consist of polymers of amino acids; essential in the diet of animals for growth and for repair of tissues; can be obtained from meat and eggs
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Polypeptide
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a peptide containing 10 to more than 100 amino acids
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Triglyceride
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glyceride occurring naturally in animal and vegetable tissues; it consists of three individual fatty acids bound together in a single large molecule; an important energy source forming much of the fat stored by the body
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Amino acid
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organic compounds containing an amino group and a carboxylic acid group; proteins are composed of various proportions of about 20 common amino acids
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Primary
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organic compounds containing an amino group and a carboxylic acid group; proteins are composed of various proportions of about 20 common amino acids
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Secondary
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depending on or incidental to what is original or primary
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Tertiary
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coming next after the second and just before the fourth in position
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Quaternary
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coming next after the third and just before the fifth in position or time or degree or magnitude; the quaternary period of geologic time extends from the end of the tertiary period to the present

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