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biology: biochemistry unit test

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macromolecules
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-a giant molecule made from hundreds or even thousands of smaller molecules – another name for polymer
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monomer
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macromolecules are made up of individual units called ______
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polymerization
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when monomers join together to form polymers
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dehydration synthesis
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when a water molecule is removed to join two monomers together (take the HOH out of the equation to join it together)
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hydrolisis
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when a water molecule is split to break bonds between monomers
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proteins
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made from amino acids (monomer)
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amino acid structure
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amino group (N with 2 H’s coming from it), R (means up to 20 combinations) group, corboxyl acid group (C double bonded with O and single bonded with OH)
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carbohydrates
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sugar
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carbohydrates
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short-term energy and structure
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lipids
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vegetable oil
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lipids
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long-term energy storage and structure
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lipids
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protection/insulation
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lipids
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chemical messengers
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proteins
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beef
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proteins
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structure, regulate cell processes and chemical reactions, transport
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nucleic acids
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DNA
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nucleic acids
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store and transmit genetic information
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carbohydrates
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compounds made up of carbon (C), hydrogen (H), and oxygen (O) atoms
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carbohydrates
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combined in a ratio of 1(C): 2(H): 1(O)
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carbohydrates
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carbon rings; glucose, galactose, fructose
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four
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there are _____ calories in one gram of carbohydrates
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lipids
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macromolecules that are generally not soluble in water
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lipids
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composed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen, long-term energy
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lipid monomers
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glycerol and fatty acid chains
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lipids
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fats, oils, waxes
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saturated fatty acid
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there are only single bonds between all carbon atoms in the fatty acid chains of a lipid
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unsaturated fatty acid
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there are double and triple bonds between carbon atoms in a fatty acid chain
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nine
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there are ___ calories in one gram of lipid
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nucleotides
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the monomers for nucleic acids
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nucleic acids
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contain carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, phosphorous
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nucleotides
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phosphate group, 5-carbon sugar, nitrogenous base
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nucleic acids
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formed by nucleotides bonding together
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nucleic acids
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RNA (Ribonucleic Acid)
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proteins
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contains carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, and nitrogen
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amino acids
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the monomer for proteins
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20
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there are a total of ___ amino acids
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peptide bonds
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how amino acids are bonded together to form polypeptide chains
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glycogen
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energy source for animals
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cellulose
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cell walls of plants
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chitin
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shell of crustacion
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wood
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______ is a sugar with energy
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fats
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saturated lipids
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oils
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unsaturated lipids
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proteins
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composed of amino acids joined together by peptide bonds
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enzymes
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a specialized group of proteins that help regulate/ control cell functions
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activation energy
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the amount of energy required to start a chemical reaction
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lower
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enzymes ______ a reaction’s activation energy, which allows a reaction to start more quickly
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enzymes
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catalyze or speed up chemical reactions that would be too slow at cellular temperatures
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substrate
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substance enzymes bind to
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subtrate
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active site is the groove where the _____ will fit
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active site, shape
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the ______ ______ and ______ of an enzyme determine its function
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lock and key hypothesis
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what scientists refer an enzymes function to, because shape is so important to the function of an enzyme
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induced fit hypothesis
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the idea that an enzyme can slightly change its shape to better fit or mold around a subtrate
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optimum temperature for enzymes
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between 35 and 40 degrees celsius
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denature
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when enzymes lose their shape because they are above their optimum temperature
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6 and 8
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enzymes work best at a pH between _ and _
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-ase
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enzyme mostly end in-
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-ose
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sugars mostly end in-
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maltase
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the enzyme _____ breaks down maltose
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pepsin
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(stomach) enzyme that breaks down proteins
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bromalin
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(fruits) enzyme that breaks down protiens
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substrate specific
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ONE enzyme only work for ONE substrate
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can
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enzymes ____ be used more than once
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chemical reaction
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a process that changes one set of chemicals into another set of chemicals
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exothermic
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reactions that release energy
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endothermic
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reactions that absorb energy
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organic chemistry
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the study of all compounds that contain bonds between CARBON atoms
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hydrocarbons
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chains of carbon atoms bonded with hydrogen atoms
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monosaccharides
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monomer for carbohydrates
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triglyceride
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monomer for lipids
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glucose, galactose, fructose
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examples of monosaccharides
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polysaccharides
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bonds of monosaccharides
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glycogen, cellulose, chitin
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examples of polysaccharides
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R group
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distinguishes one amino acid from another
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polarity
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property of water that conveys its many characteristics
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nuetrons
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no charge
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protons
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positive charge
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electrons
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negative charge
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isotopes
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atoms of the same element that have the same number of protons but a different number of nuetrons
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ionic bond
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when electrons are taken from an atom
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covalent bond
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when electrons are shared between two atoms
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hydrogen bonding
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since water is polar, the slightly positive hydrogens and the slightly negative hydrogens allow it; gives water its special properties
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polarity
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allows for hydrogen bonding
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cohesion
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a water molecule sticks to other water molecules and creates surface tension
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adhesion
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water molecules stick to other substances and cause capillary action
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capillary action
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allows water to flow up plants
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high specific heat
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heats slowly and resist temperature change
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universal solvent
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many substances can be dissolved in water