Biology 115 – Chapter 3

Flashcard maker : James Hopper
Why type of junctions must there be between cells to form a barrier?
– adhesion junctions
– gap junctions
– tight junctions
– channel junctions
– free junctions
tight junctions
A malfunction with the microtubules would interfere with mitosis and meiosis.
True or False?
True
A short chain of sugar attached to a protein molecule on the plasma membrane is called…
a protomembrane.
a protosugar.
a glycocalyx.
a glycolipid.
a glycoprotein.
a glycoprotein
A solution is at equilibrium across a plasma membrane. If 50 molecules were to enter the cell, how many molecules would need to exit the cell in order to maintain the equilibrium?
50 / 75 / 25 / 0 / 100
50
All of the following are possible origins of cell organelles in eukaryotes EXCEPT
– invagination of the plasma membrane to form endoplasmic reticulum.
– incorporation of engulfed heterotrophic bacteria to form mitochondria.
– incorporation of engulfed autotrophic cyanobacteria to form chloroplasts.
– a symbiotic relationship between a host cell and a prokaryote that was taken up but not destroyed.
– groups of prokaryotic cells begin to live in a small group sharing products of metabolism.
incorporation of engulfed autotrophic cyanobacteria to form chloroplasts.
Angela would like to look at living algae from pond water. What type of equipment should she use?
– compound light microscope
– transmission electron microscope
– scanning electron microscope
– magnifying glass
– her naked eye
compound light microscope
Archaea are considered the evolutionary precursors to eukaryotic cells.
True or False?
True
Because bacteria are prokaryotes, they do not have DNA. True or False?
False
Biologists classify cells into two broad categories–animals and plants. True or False?
False
Brad placed a drop of blood in some distilled water. What happened in the red blood cells?
– The cells shrunk.
– The cells burst.
– The cells did not change.
– The cells divided into 2 identical cells.
– The cellular metabolism increased in rate.
The cells burst.
Brett needs to distinguish two points that are 0.5 mm apart. What is the easiest way to do this?
– Use a transmission electron microscope.
– Use a compound light microscope.
– Use his eyes.
– Use a magnifying glass.
– Use a scanning electron microscope.
Use his eyes.
Centrosomes are associated with…
ribosomes.
mitochondria.
chromosomes.
microtubules.
lysosomes.
microtubules
Choose the CORRECT statement about solute concentrations or particles inside and outside the cell.
– In a hypertonic solution, there are more particles inside the cell.
– In a hypotonic solution, there are more particles outside the cell.
– In an isotonic solution the amount of water inside and outside the cell is equal.
– In a hypertonic solution, there is more water outside the cell.
– In a hypotonic solution, there is more water inside the cell.
In an isotonic solution the amount of water inside and outside the cell is equal.
Cilia are composed of microtubules while flagella are composed of actin filaments. True or False?
False
During a hurricane, salt water invades fresh water marshes causing many of the plants to die. The plants are killed because the salt water solution is __________________ to the plants, drawing water from their cells.
– isotonic
– hypotonic
– mesotonic
– oligotonic
– hypertonic
hypertonic
During exocytosis, the phospholipids present in the vesicle membrane will end up in the plasma membrane. True or False?
True
Fermentation produces more ATP than does aerobic respiration. True or False.
False
How large is a nuclear pore in the nuclear envelope?
– larger than a ribosome
– larger than the Golgi apparatus
– larger than the endoplasmic reticulum
– smaller than a ribosome
– smaller than a protein
larger than a ribosome
If a cell has a volume of 3nm, what are the surface area and the volume of the cell?
– 24nm2, 8nm3
– 38nm2, 16nm3
– 54nm2, 27nm3
– 64nm2, 24nm3
– 18nm2, 6nm3
54nm2, 27nm3
If a cell lacked ribosomes, it would not be able to…
– form a spindle apparatus.
– synthesize proteins.
– respire oxidatively.
– break down fats.
– produce ATP.
synthesize proteins.
If the mitochondrion is the result of endosymbiosis, what membrane of the mitochondrion represents the engulfing vesicle?
– the outer mitochondrial membrane
– vacuole
– cristae
– matrix
– grana
the outer mitochondrial membrane
If you could remove all the phosphate in the cell, what would happen to the ATP cycle?
– It would stop when all the ATP had been converted into ADP.
– It would stop when all the ADP had been converted into ATP.
– It would cycle faster because the lack of phosphate would drive the cycle.
– It would cycle faster because of the buildup of ATP.
– It would not affect the ATP cycle.
It would stop when all the ATP had been converted into ADP.
In a metabolic pathway, substrate Z is broken down to form product Y and X. Y is further broken down into products V and W. How many enzymes are required for this metabolic pathway?
one
two
three
four
five
two
In an experiment in the laboratory, a small colored molecule is injected into one cell. Within minutes, the molecule has entered the adjacent cells. What type of junctions connect these cells?
gap junctions
free junctions
adhesion junctions
tight junctions
actin junctions
gap junctions
In developing embryos such as a chicken, what restores the amount of surface area needed for exchange requirements?
– respiration
– catabolism
– anabolism
– cell division
– assimilation
cell division
In the fluid-mosaic model of the plasma membrane, the phospholipid molecules are oriented so that the _____________ heads are facing the outside environment and the ________________ tails are facing the interior of the membrane.
– hydrophobic, hydrophilic
– hydrophilic, hydrophobic
– autotrophic, heterotrophic
– heterotrophic, autotrophic
– ectothermic, endothermic
hydrophilic, hydrophobic
In the sodium potassium pump, sodium and potassium are both pumped out of the cell via active transport.
True or False
False
Often when a person is admitted to the hospital, an intravenous solution of normal saline is begun. Since this does not harm the patient, what is the tonicity of normal saline compared to your blood?
– hypertonic
– isotonic
– hypotonic
– pretonic
– osmotonic
isotonic
Only glucose can be used as an energy source in the human body.
True or False
False
Paleontologists have discovered ancient prokaryotic fossils dated at over 3.5 billion years old. These fossils resemble prokaryotes that are capable of living in extreme conditions such as high temperature and salinity. What domain do these prokaryotes belong to?
– Protists
– Protoctista
– Archaea
– Archetista
– Eukarya
Archaea
Sheree observed an amoeba feeding by engulfing the prey with its false feet or pseudopods. This process is known as…
– pinocytosis.
– phagocytosis.
– exocytosis.
– facilitated transport.
– osmosis.
phagocytosis
Since all organisms carry on cellular respiration, all living cells must contain mitochondria.
True or False
False
The assisted transport of a molecule across the cell membrane without an expenditure of energy is known as what?
– diffusion
– facilitated transport
– active transport
– osmosis
– crenation
facilitated transport
The cytoplasm is not considered a cellular organelle.
True or False
True
The first day of football practice was rough on the squad. During practice the players complained of cramps and sore muscles. The reason for their complaints was that there was a __________________ build up in their muscles.
– glucose
– alcohol
– carbon dioxide
– carbon monoxide
– lactate
lactate
The gel-like fluid substance within a mitochondrion is called the…
– matrix.
– cristae.
– rugae.
– effluvium.
– villi.
matrix
The grainy-looking substance inside the nucleus is composed of…
– phospholipids.
– DNA and proteins.
– nucleoplasm.
– ribosomes.
– mitochondria.
DNA and proteins.
The light microscope has a resolving power of…
0.1 mm.
0.01 mm.
0.0001 mm.
0.000001 mm.
0.00000001 mm.
0.0001 mm.
The movement of water across a semi-permeable membrane is called…
– denaturation.
– osmosis.
– dispersion.
– dissociation.
– reconstitution.
osmosis
The nucleus of a cell in your thigh muscle contains the same genes as the nucleus of a cell in your brain.
True or False
True
The phospholipid bilayer that surrounds/maintains the integrity of a cell is called a…
– plasma membrane.
– Sanger enclosure.
– hydrophobic membrane.
– dialysis membrane.
– mosaic membrane.
plasma membrane.
The plasma membrane contains how many layers of phospholipids?
one
two
four
eight
sixteen
two
The reason that metabolizing cells are small in size is because…
– cells influence nearby cells to divide.
– the surface area of a cell must be able to accomplish nutrient/waste exchange.
– cells need to dissipate heat effectively.
– mitosis occurs before cells reach a certain size.
– cells need to communicate with adjacent cells.
the surface area of a cell must be able to accomplish nutrient/waste exchange.
The size of a metabolizing cell is limited by its…
– extracellular matrix.
– function.
– nuclear size.
– surface area-to-volume ratio.
– genome size.
surface area-to-volume ratio.
The sum of all of the chemical reactions that occur in a cell collectively are called…
– respiration.
– anabolism.
– photosynthesis.
– metabolism.
– reaction summary.
metabolism.
Viruses are not made up of cells. According to cell theory, this means what?
– Viruses can cause disease.
– Cells come only from pre-existing cells.
– Cells can be infected by viruses.
– Viruses are not living.
– Cells and viruses are the same thing.
Viruses are not living.
What are the folds in mitochondrial membranes called?
– matrix
– cristae
– rugae
– lumen
– villi
cristae
What cell structure is composed of a stack of slightly curved saccules that are important in packaging and secretion?
– mitochondria
– vacuoles
– Golgi apparatus
– lysosomes
– endoplasmic reticulum
Golgi apparatus
What cellular organelle is especially abundant in phagocytic white blood cells?
nuclei
nucleoli
Golgi apparati
lysosomes
ribosomes
lysosomes
What components make up the ribosomes?
proteins and rRNA
proteins and DNA
lipids and rRNA
carbohydrates and rRNA
proteins and DNA
proteins and rRNA
What do the SER and RER have in common?
the presence of ribosomes
the formation of transport vesicles
the synthesis of phospholipids
the synthesis of proteins
the processing and modification of proteins
the formation of transport vesicles
What is the function of cholesterol in the plasma membrane?
cell marker
receptor
support
channel
enzyme
support
What is the main function of the ribosomes in the cell?
to synthesize proteins
to synthesize DNA
to breakdown proteins into individual amino acids
to form the nuclear envelope
to provide strength and structural support for the cell membrane
to synthesize proteins
What is the maximum number of ATP molecules produced during aerobic respiration?
38
36
32
2
4
38
What is the name of a photograph of a specimen obtained with a microscope?
negative
dermatome
thermograph
micrograph
chromatograph
micrograph
What is the name of the semi-fluid medium inside the cell?
nucleolus
cytoplasm
organelle
cytoskeleton
mitochondrion
cytoplasm
What is the obvious dark-stained structure within the nucleus that contains ribosomal RNA called?
nucleus
nucleolus
nuclear envelope
nucleoplasm
endoplasmic reticulum
nucleolus
What type of microscopy provides a three-dimensional view of the surface of an object?
compound light microscope
transmission electron microscope
scanning electron microscope
phase contrast microscope
ultraviolet microscope
scanning electron microscope
When ATP is broken down, heat is released.
True or False
True
Which model currently describes the structure of the plasma membrane?
endosymbiont model
fluid-mosaic model
plasmagel-plasmasol model
lock and key model
induced-fit model
fluid-mosaic model
Which of the following can cross the plasma membrane because of its selective permeability?
gases such as oxygen and carbon dioxide
ions
large, polar molecules
large, nonpolar molecules
glycoproteins
gases such as oxygen and carbon dioxide
Which of the following diseases would you expect in someone with malfunctioning cilia?
recurrent respiratory infections
heart attack
urinary infections
muscle paralysis
brittle bones
recurrent respiratory infections
Which of the following does not utilize active transport?
movement of oxygen from the lungs into the blood
concentrating iodine ions in the thyroid gland
absorbing sugar in the gut
water homeostasis in the kidneys
movement of sodium and potassium in nerve cells
movement of oxygen from the lungs into the blood
Which of the following is not a function of the cytoskeleton?
maintain a cell’s shape
process proteins
anchor organelles
move organelles
move the entire cell
process proteins
Which of the following is not a function of the plasma membrane?
– determines which substances enter and leave the cell
– serves as a boundary between the cell and its environment
– contains receptor sites which determine how the cell interacts with its environment
– contains the genetic information
– marks the cell as belonging to a particular individual
contains the genetic information
Which of the following is not associated with the cytoskeleton?
intermediate filaments
microtubules
microbodies
actin filaments
centrosome
microbodies
Which of the following processes moves large molecules across a membrane in the opposite direction of the others?
exocytosis
phagocytosis
pinocytosis
receptor-mediated endocytosis
endocytosis
exocytosis
Which of the following protein fibers is used for cellular movement and are extremely thin in size.
actin filaments
intermediate filaments
microtubules
centrosome
cilia
actin filaments
Which of the following steps in the breakdown of glucose does not require oxygen?
glycolysis
citric acid cycle
electron transport chain
acetyl CoA conversion
None of these require oxygen.
glycolysis
Which of the following structures are present in both eukaryotes and prokaryotes?
plasma membrane
nucleus
endoplasmic reticulum
Golgi body
mitochondria
plasma membrane
Which of the following would be a way of finishing this hypothesis about the function of the Golgi apparatus? If the Golgi apparatus is involved in packaging products for secretion, then…
– vesicles must travel from the Golgi to the cell surface.
– vesicles must travel from the RER and SER to the Golgi apparatus.
– the Golgi apparatus must be part of the endomembrane system.
– the Golgi apparatus must consist of 3 to 20 slightly curved sacs.
– the Golgi apparatus would contain proteins.
vesicles must travel from the Golgi to the cell surface.
Which organelle can be likened to a post office?
nucleus
nucleolus
mitochondria
endoplasmic reticulum
Golgi apparatus
Golgi apparatus
Which protein filaments are bundled together to form cilia?
microtubules
actin filaments
intermediate filaments
centrosomes
None of these.
microtubules
Which structure in the human body will use flagella to move?
sperm
eggs
lining of the respiratory tract
lining of the uterine tubes
lining of the urinary system
sperm
Whose work proved conclusively that spontaneous generation of life from nonlife was not possible?
Louis Pasteur
Charles Darwin
John Ray
Walther Flemming
Georges Cuvier
Louis Pasteur
Why is glycolysis believed to have evolved early in the history of life?
It breaks down sugar.
It produces energy.
It is present in most every type of cell.
It does not require oxygen.
It splits a 6-carbon molecule into two 3-carbon molecules.
It is present in most every type of cell.
________ are the fundamental units that make up all living things.
Compartments
Cells
Chromosomes
Coelom
Cristae
Cells

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