Biochemistry Pre-Test

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What do organisms use carbohydrates for?
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energy
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What is a carbohydrate?
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An organic compound made up of sugar molecules
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what is the CH2O ratio of C:H:O for carbs?
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1:2:1
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What kind of shape do most carb molecules have?
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A Ring shaped carbon skeleton ex: c-c-c-c
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What is the most important carb?
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Glucose
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What is the molecular formula for glucose?
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C6H12O6
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What are the properties of glucose?
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It is soluble in water, white crystal, somewhat sweet
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Polymer
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Many molecules bonded together
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Monomer
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A single molecule
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How are polymers and monomers related to each other?
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Because they are monomers all together
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What chemical elements are present in carbohydrate?
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Carbon, Nitrogen, Oxygen
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Blood sugar
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Glucose, our brains will always need it
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Monosaccharides
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Single ringed sugars, examples: Glucose & Fructose
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Fructose Characteristics
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Sweeter than glucose, found in fruit, main use for high fructose corn syrup
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Disaccharides
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Double ringed sugars
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examples of a disaccharide?
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Sucrose & Lactose
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Sucrose and Lactose are each made up of two monomers, what are they?
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Sucrose: Glucose and fructose, it is a table sugar Lactose: Galactose & Glucose, it is a milk sugar
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Polysaccharides
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Starch is a common name
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Characteristics of polysaccharides
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Lots of glucose bonded together, around (100-300), It’s too big of a molecule so it is NOT soluble in water, and isn’t sweet tasting
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Examples of Polysaccharides
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Amylose & Cellulose
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Amylose
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skin of fruit
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Cellulose
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Is fiber, humans can’t break bond between glucose molecules in cellulose, It goes through our digestive system unchanged. Herbivores can digest it
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What is glycogen?
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Animal starch and it stores energy in animals
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What happens if you don’t eat for several hours?
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Glycogen releases glucose molecules in to the blood
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Properties of lipids?
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Not soluble in water, and is hydrophobic (avoids it)
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Atoms are present and in what amount?
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Present in: Carbon, hydrogen, oxygen… 1:2 ratio of C & H, little O
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Where is glycogen stored in animals?
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The liver
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Where is cellulose stored in plants?
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The skin
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What atoms are present in lipids?
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Carbon, Hydrogen, oxygen 1:2 ratio, very little O
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Why are lipids important?
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Provides and stores energy
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What are fats made of and what is there structure?
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Glycerol: OH Structure & Fatty acids: CH struture
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Fats are formed by?
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Two different types of monomers
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The size of how many C’s in a fatty acid chain?
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16-18
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How do living organisms use fats?
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Provides energy stores it, insulation in animals
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How many bonds in a fatty acid chain?
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Double bonds
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What kind of bonds do unsaturated fat have?
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double bonds, Saturated fat on diagrams do not have equal sign
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Saturated fats and unsaturated fats are what in room temperature?
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Saturated: Solid Unsaturated: Liquid (oils)
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Where are saturated and unsaturated fats from?
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Saturated: Animals Unsaturated: Plants
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What can saturated fats lead to?
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Heart disease
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What are the four major groups of lipids?
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Fats, steriods, wax, and phospholipids
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What group are steroids in? Why?
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Lipids because they don’t dissolve in water, they also have C and H, Less O (think of atoms!)
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How many rings do steroids have?
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4 that are interlocking
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What is the most important thing about steroids?
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Cholesterol!
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What are the purposes of cholesterol?
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Essential component of cell membranes, intracellular transport, cell signaling, precursor in biochemical pathways.
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What are all of the sex hormones and what are each used for?
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Estrogen: female for egg formation Progesterone: Female Testosterone: Male for sperm formation
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What are examples of Steroids?
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Cholesterol, sex hormones, vitamin D, Cortisol
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What converts cholesterol in the skin to Vitamin D? What is it also needed for?
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Sunlight. Or, added in milk, or taken in supplements. Calcium
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What helps control the immune response?
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Cortisol
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What kind of hormone is cortisol called? what does it do?
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the stress hormone, it increases the blood sugar and pressure
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What are anabolic steroids?
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They mimic the muscle building properties of testosterone
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Wax lipid
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A different type of lipid, it acts as a waterproof coating on plants
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What do Phospholipids do?
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Form cell membranes
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How many fatty acid chains do phospholipids have?
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2
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Where does Phosphate take place?
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3rd chain part of the hydrophilic head
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The more double bonds, the more…?
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the temperature needs to decrease.
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What are properties?
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Things that are measured in periodic tables
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What do proteins do for a living organism?
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Structure: hair, fur Enzymes: chemical reactions Carriers/messengers: Oxygen transport Defenders: immune system Contraction: Muscles
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What is the monomer for protein?
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Amino Acid
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What elements are proteins made of?
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Carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, and some sulfur
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What is an R group?
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1 of 20 different functional groups.
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What is a functional group (out of the R groups)
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A group of atoms (side groups or side chains)
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What type of atom is the R group?
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Hydrogen atom
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What is the bond called that links two amino acids together to make a protein?
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Peptide bond
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How many different amino acids are there?
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20
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How does one amino acid differ from another?
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They differ at the “R” Group
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How long is a protein?
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A minimum of 50 amino acids, some thousands and are large molecules
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What must happen to a long chain of amino acids in order for it to be a working protein?
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It’ll only work if it’s shaped correctly. It folds specifically. The shape is determined by the sequence of amino acids
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What is it called when a protein unravels? What type of things do this to protein?
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Denatures, taken out of its natural state Heat & pH or a environmental condition
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Collagen Protein
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Important for animals, acts as skin for animals, it comes unglued if an animals does not have it
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Collagen
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It is strong and flexible which is important for animal movement
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Vitamin C
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Needed to maintain collagen protein, if no Vitamin C, collagen falls apart and the disease scurry occurs. Long see voyages = no vitamin C
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Kertatin
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Protein that forms hair, outer layer of skin, nails, feathers, and scales
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Hemoglobin
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Protein that carries oxygen in the blood and give it its red color
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What kind of molecule is an enzyme?
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A protein
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What do enzymes do?
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Carry out chemical reactions
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Chemical reaction
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Substances change in to other substances
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What carries out chemical reactions?
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Cells
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Bonds are…?
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Broken and reformed Example: Sucrose + H2o ——-> Glucose + Fructose Sucrase
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What is needed to start a reaction?
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Heat
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Reactions require what? Explain
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Activation energy = energy needed to get a reaction started
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What is a catalyst?
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A substance that speeds up a chemical reaction, but is not changed by the chemical reaction
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Why are enzymes needed in cells?
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To survive and function
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What acts like a catalyst?
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Enzymes
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What type of protein are enzymes?
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Catalytic protein, the have a globular shape
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Active site
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The pocket in an enzyme that binds the substrate
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Substrate
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Reactant/starting molecule
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What are the steps of the enzyme cycle?
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1. Substrates bind to active site 2. Chemical changes take place so that the substrate changes in to the products 3. The products are released
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What is meant by a lock and key fit between an enzyme and is substrate?
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The enzyme and substrate fits perfectly meaning the active site goes in and helps with the reactions
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What things will inactivate an enzyme?
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Anything that damages a protein
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McMush Lab: What regent will detect the presence of a monosaccharide?
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Apples
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McMush Lab: What reagent will detect the presence of protein?
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Burger meat
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McMush Lab: What reagent will detect the presence of a polysaccharide?
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Fries

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