Bio – Ch. 27

The prokaryotic cells that built stromatolites are classified as _____.

proteobacteria
chlamydias
spirochetes
gram-positive bacteria
cyanobacteria

cyanobacteria

The prokaryotic cells that were the first to add significant quantities of oxygen to Earth’s atmosphere are classified as _____.

proteobacteria
chlamydias
spirochetes
gram-positive bacteria
cyanobacteria

cyanobacteria

Streptococcus pyogenes is classified with _____.

proteobacteria
chlamydias
spirochetes
gram-positive bacteria
cyanobacteria

gram-positive bacteria

Organisms that can cause nongonococcal urethritis are classified with _____.

proteobacteria
chlamydias
spirochetes
gram-positive bacteria
cyanobacteria

chlamydias

The chemoheterotroph Proteus vulgaris is a rod-shaped bacterium classified with _____.

proteobacteria
chlamydias
spirochetes
gram-positive bacteria
cyanobacteria

proteobacteria

Spiral-shaped bacteria are likely to be placed with _____.

proteobacteria
chlamydias
spirochetes
gram-positive bacteria
cyanobacteria

spirochetes

According to this phylogenetic tree, which of these pairs of prokaryotic subgroups share the most recent common ancestor?

Euryarchaeota … Cyanobacteria
Proteobacteria … Crenarchaeota
Proteobacteria … Euryarchaeota
Euryarchaeota … Crenarchaeota
Crenarchaeota … Cyanobacteria

Euryarchaeota … Crenarchaeota

Which group was not described in Woese’s tree of life analysis?

Bacteria
Archaea
Eukarya
Prokarya

Prokarya

What characteristics were used to classify organisms before Woese’s tree of life analysis?

Number of cells in the organism
Differences in ribosomal RNA sequences
Presence of a membrane-bound nucleus
Composition of the cell wall

Presence of a membrane-bound nucleus

True or false? Data showing that the Bacteria were the first lineage to diverge from the common ancestor of all living organisms suggest that the Archaea and Eukarya are more closely related to each other than they are to the Bacteria.

True
False

True

Which of the following statements about phylogenetic trees is true?

A paraphyletic group consists of an ancestral population and all of its descendants.
A paraphyletic group consists of a common ancestor and some of its descendants.
A paraphyletic group has not experienced lateral gene transfer.
A monophyletic group consists of a common ancestor and some of its descendants.

A paraphyletic group consists of a common ancestor and some of its descendants.

Which molecule did Carl Woese study to produce his tree of life?

Ribosomal RNA
Messenger RNA
DNA
Ribosome

Ribosomal RNA

What is lateral gene transfer?

Inheritance of a gene from a parent
Inheritance of a gene through mitosis
Inheritance of a gene through meiosis
Physical transfer of a gene from a species in one lineage to a species in another lineage.

Physical transfer of a gene from a species in one lineage to a species in another lineage.

Azotobacter is a genus of bacteria that live in soil and have the following characteristics:

They are bacilli.
They are gram-negative.
They are obligate aerobes.
They can fix nitrogen. (Unlike some other nitrogen-fixing bacteria, which associate with the roots of plants, Azotobacter species are free-living.)

Select the four statements that are true for bacteria in the genus Azotobacter.

They can carry out anaerobic respiration in an environment that lacks O2.
They require amino acids or other organic molecules as a source of nitrogen.
They have the appearance of coils or corkscrews.
They have a relatively thin layer of peptidoglycan in their cell wall.
They appear purple after Gram staining.
They use O2 for cellular respiration.
They are poisoned by O2.
They can convert atmospheric nitrogen to ammonia.
They are shaped like rods.

They have a relatively thin layer of peptidoglycan in their cell wall.
They use O2 for cellular respiration.
They can convert atmospheric nitrogen to ammonia.
They are shaped like rods.

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