Assessment 2

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During the outcome identification and planning steps of the nursing process, the nurse works in partnership with the patient and family to do 4 things. List them
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-establish priorities -identify and write expected patient outcomes -select evidence-based nursing interventions -communicate the plan of nursing care
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Patient outcome
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expected conclusion to a patient health problem
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Difference between goal and outcome
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outcome is used to describe goals achieved
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The words ‘goal’, ‘objective’, and ‘outcome’ are often used….
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interchangeably
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What is the primary purpose of the outcome identification and planning step of the nursing process?
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to design a plan of care for and with the patient that, once implemented, results in the prevention, reduction, or resolution of patient health problems and the attainment of the patient’s health expectations, as identified in the pt. outcomes.
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List the nursing’s broad aims
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promote wellness prevent disease and illness promote recovery facilitate coping with altered functioning
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This is a common problem in all healthcare settings
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failure to update the plan of care
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What is the chief purpose of initial planning?
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it addresses each problem listed in the prioritized nursing diagnoses and identifies appropriate pt. goals and the related nursing care
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What is the chief purpose of ongoing planning?
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to keep the plan up to date to facilitate the resolution of health problems, manage risk factors, and promote function.
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Discharge planning is best carried out by..
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the nurse who worked most closely with the patient + a social worker
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Maslow’s Hierarchy of Human Needs
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1. physiologic needs 2. safety needs 3. love and belonging needs 4. self-esteem needs 5. self-actualization needs
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Outcomes are derived from the _________ of the nursing diagnosis
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problem statement
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This is the first comprehensive standardized language used to describe the patient outcomes that are responsive to nursing intervention
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The nursing outcomes classification
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Cognitive outcomes
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describe increases in pt. knowledge or intellectual behavior
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Psychomotor outcomes
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describes the pt’s achievement of new skills
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Affective outcomes
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Describes changes in pt’s values, beliefs, and attitudes
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This directs the nurse to derive culturally appropriate expected outcomes from the diagnoses
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The ANA standards of practice act
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To be measurable, outcomes should have what 5 things?
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-subject -verb -conditions -performance criteria -target timing
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Verbs to be avoided when writing goals
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know, understand, learn, become aware
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Verbs that helpful when writing outcomes are ______ and _____.
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observable and measurable
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Evaluative statements include…
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a statement about achievement of the desired outcome and the actual patient behavior as evidence supporting the statement
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Nursing intervention
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any treatment based on clinical judgment and knowledge that a nurse performs to enhance pt. outcomes
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Nursing interventions are…
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nurse-initiated, physician initiated, and collaborative initiated
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Nurse initiated intervention
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an autonomous action based on a scientific rationale that a nurse executes to benefit the pt in a predictable way related to the nursing diagnosis and projected outcomes
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Nurse initiated interventions do not require..
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a physician’s order
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This suggests the nursing interventions
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etiology
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Comprehensive nursing interventions specify….
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-what observations need to be made and how often -what nursing interventions need to be done -what teaching, counseling, and advocacy needs patients and families have
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Standard of care
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a description of an acceptable level of patient care or professional practice
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Algorithm
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a set of steps that approximates the decision process of an expert clinician and is used to make decisions
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Who writes the plan of nursing care? When is it done?
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the nurse who best knows the patient and is recorded on the day the patient presents for treatment and care according to agency policy
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Clinical pathways
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tools used to communicate the standardized, interdisciplinary plan of care for patients
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What is the purpose of implementing?
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to assist the patient in achieving valued health outcomes: promote health, prevent disease and illness, restore health, and facilitate coping with altered functioning
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During this step, the nurse continues to collect data and to modify the plan of care as needed
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implementing
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Whereas other healthcare pros focus on selected aspects of the patient’s treatment regimen, nurses are concerned with…
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how the patient is responding to the plan of care in general
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These people are specialists in the role of care coordinator
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nursing care managers
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Nursing intervention
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any treatment based upon clinical judgment and knowledge that a nurse performs to enhance patient/client outcomes
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Protocols
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written plans that detail the nursing activities to be expected in specific situations
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This is the nurse’s most important task and should receive top priority
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the plan of care
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Nurses modify their nursing actions according to what 3 things?
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1. changing ability and willingness to participate in the plan of care 2. previous responses to nursing interventions and progress toward goal/outcome achievement 3. developmental stage and psychosocial bg
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Nurse variables that influence the implementation of the plan of care
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1. levels of expertise 2. creativity 3. willingness to provide care 4. available time
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Unlicensed assistive personnel (UAPs) are also known by what name?
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nurse-extenders
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What is the purpose of evaluation?
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to allow the patient’s achievement of expected outcomes to direct future nurse-patient interactions
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This is the most important act of evaluation performed by nurses
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evaluating outcome achievement with the patient
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5 classic elements of evaluation of care
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1. identifying evaluative criteria and standards 2. collecting data to determine whether these criteria and standards are met 3. interpreting and summarizing findings 4. documenting your judgment 5. terminating, continuing, or modifying the plan
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What is evaluative criteria? Evaluative criteria is also the ____ of the evaluation.
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the patient outcomes developed during the planning step core
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What are the functions of evaluation?
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Determining whether these outcomes have been or are being met and then identifying the appropriate nursing response are the functions of evaluation.
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Criteria
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measurable qualities, attributes, or characteristics that specify skills, knowledge, or health states. They describe acceptable levels of performance by stating the expected behaviors of the nurse or the patient
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Define Standards. How are they established?
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the levels of performance accepted and expected by the nursing staff or other health-team members. They are established by authority, custom, or consent
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Whereas the nurse collects data in the nursing assessment to identify patient health problems, the data collected in the evaluation step are used……
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to determine whether the identified health problems have been or are being resolved through outcome achievement.
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This can determine whether affective outcomes have been achieved.
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Observation of patient behavior and conversation
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The most common mistake nurses make when evaluating in acute care settings is…
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waiting until the day the patient is to be discharged before evaluating outcome achievement
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After the data have been collected and interpreted to determine patient outcome achievement, the nurse makes and documents a judgment summarizing the findings. What is this called?
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evaluative statement
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What does the evaluative statement entail?
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includes a decision about how well the outcome was met, along with patient data or behaviors that support this decision
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The following four steps are crucial in improving performance
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1. Discover a problem. 2. Plan a strategy using indicators. 3. Implement a change. 4. Assess the change; if the outcome is not met, plan a new strategy.
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quality-assurance programs
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Specially designed programs that promote excellence in nursing
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The ANA model directs attention to three essential components of quality care. List them.
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structure, process, and outcome
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Quality improvement
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the commitment and approach used to continuously improve every process in every part of an organization, with the intent of meeting and exceeding customer expectations and outcomes
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Quality improvement vs. quality assurance
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unlike quality assurance, quality improvement is internally driven, focuses on patient care rather than organizational structure, focuses on processes rather than individuals, and has no end points.
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Concurrent evaluation
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direct observation of nursing care, patient interviews, and chart review to determine whether the specified evaluative criteria are met.
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Retrospective evaluation
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postdischarge questionnaires, patient interviews (by telephone or face to face), or chart review (nursing audit) to collect data
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Factors to consider before delegating any nursing intervention
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1. pt’s condition 2. complexity of activity 3. potential for harm 4. degree of problem solving and innovation to carry out the task 5. level of intervention required with the patient 6. capabilities of the person being delegated to 7. availability of the pro staff to accomplish work load

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