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Aronson Social Psychology Chapter 1

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Study of the way in which people thoughts, feelings and behaviors are influenced by the real or imagined presence of other people
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Social Psychology
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The effect that words, action or mere presence of others have on our thoughts, feelings and behavior
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Social Influence
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What are some alternative ways of understanding social influence?
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Folk wisdom, common sense, opinions, insight of philosophers, ect.
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Why is social psychology different than personality psychology, sociology and philosophy?
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1. Personality/Clinical Psychology focuses on individual qualities. 2. Sociology focuses on the study of groups, or organizations. The main difference is the level of analysis. Social psychology focuses on the psychological processes shared by most individuals that make them susceptible to social influence.
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The tendency to explain our own and other’s behavior entirely in terms of personality traits and to underestimate the power of social influence. In doing so we oversimplify the severity of the problem and do not consider outside influences.
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Fundamental Attribution Error
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Wall Street Game
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Students asked to pinpoint students that would be competitive or cooperative. Researchers placed students into two groups: 1 wall street game, 2 community game. Those in the wall street game were generally more competitive due to the social norm of Wall Street.
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School of Psychology which focuses on the reinforcing properties of the environment to understand human behavior
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Behaviorism
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The way in which we perceive, understand and interpret the social world
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Construal
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Emphasis on construal. Study that holds we should study the subjective way in which an object appears in peoples minds rather than the objective, physical attributes.
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Gestalt Psychology
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Applied Gestalt Psychology to social perception. First to realize the importance of taking the perspective of the people in a situation.
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Kurt Lewin
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The belief that all of us have that we perceive things “as they really are”. If others see things differently, then they are biased.
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Naïve Realism
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The way in which human beings think about the world. How people select, interpret, remember and use social information to make judgments and decisions.
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Social Cognition
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The expectation that you or another person will behave in some way, so you act in ways to make your prediction come true.
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self fulfilling prophecy
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A study in which elementary school teachers were told were told that some students were “bloomers” when in fact the children were no different. When the researchers returned to the school at the end of the year, the children labeled as bloomers were doing extremely well. This was the case because the teachers expectations caused an improvement of their performance.
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Rosenthal & Jacobson (198)
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Study on suffering and self justification in which students underwent different levels of hazing. It was found that the more unpleasant the hazing, the better the students liked the group.
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Aronson & Mills (1959)