APUSH progressive era- federal reserve act

progressive era1895-1920; period characterized by dynamic political leaders INSERT INTO `cofwp_posts` VALUES (Roosevelt/Wilson) and emergence from war and economic depression. Sense of renewal served to intensify anxiety over social/political problems and raise hopes they could be fixed and democracy could be reconciled with capitalism.
muckrakersjournalists who fed public taste for scandal and sensation by exposing social, economic, and political wrongs
direct primariesadvocated by progressives to replace partisan caucuses; voters could nominate candidates directly

initiativepermitted voters to propose new laws
referendumenabled voters to accept or reject a law
recallallowed voters to remove offending officials/judges from office before their term expired
“old guard” Republicanschampioned ideology as opponents to progressivism that government interference in the free market contradicts natural law of survival of the fittest; progress will only result from maintaining profit incentive
Robert Lafolletteas WI governor he initiated reform program including direct primaries, more equitable taxes, and regulation of RR rates; later became senator and approached reform scientifically while still exciting public interest; wanted to drive corporations out of politics
souther progressivismurban middle class worked towards many of same goals as north and are especially successful in political reform; although tainted by racism, south was important in movement: 17th amendment, direct primaries in all but 3 states
17th amendmentprovided for direct election of US senators INSERT INTO `cofwp_posts` VALUES (previously by state legislatures); state legislatures thought by progressivists to be corrupt
18th amendmentoutlawed manufacture, sale, and transportation of intoxicating liquors; seen as expression of progressive goal to protect family and workplace through reform
progressive educationuniquely American; Dewey: learning should focus on real-life problems and children should be taught to use their intelligence and ingenuity as instruments for controlling their environments
progressive legalismprogressive lawyers argued that law should be flexible enough to reflect needs of society; judged imbued with laissez-faire theories opposed this view
social sciencestudy of society and its institutions; in progressive era: citizens should actively plan to cure social ills rather than passively waiting for problems to solve themselves
Social Gospel“WWJD”; belief that one could counter the brutality of capitalism by applying Christian principles toward worldly matters
eugenicsbelief that human character and habits could be inherited so society had an obligation to prevent reproduction of “inferior” people–immigrants, ethnics, etc.–led to sterilization and restricting immigration
Booker T. Washingtonencouraged african americans to accommodate themselves to whites, at least temporarily, to prove their cause; some blacks INSERT INTO `cofwp_posts` VALUES (esp. educated northerners) thought he favored a degrading second class citizenship
W.E.B. DuBoisopposed Washington and believed a select group of african americans should use their skill to pursue racial equality; formed NAACP
Niagara Movement“anti-Bookerites” pledged militant pursuit of rights such as unrestricted voting, economic opportunity, integration, and equality before law
NAACPaimed to end racial discrimination and obtain voting rights by pursuing legal redress in the courts
“the women movement”middle class women striving to move beyond household into social welfare activities, higher education, and paid labor
the feminist movementparticipants explicitly conscious of their identity as women; emphasized rights and self development; contradiction of unity of women vs. no sex-typing theories
Margaret Sangeremphasized “sex rights” of women and advocated strongly for birth control movement; American birth control league = modern day planned parenthood
suffrage movementBlatch believed all women contributed to societys betterment; need to vote to promote womens economic roles: NAWSA- Carrie Chapman Catt and NWP- Alice Paul
Carrie Chapman Catt and Alice Paulwomen who heightened public awareness and fought for womens suffrage in respective groups: NAWSA and NWP
19th amendmentnational suffrage; gave women the right to vote
Theodore Rooseveltbelieved government should direct national affairs, should economically decide when big business is bad or good, and believed in white superiority and in conservation over preservation
Northern Securities ActINSERT INTO `cofwp_posts` VALUES (Roosevelt) supreme court ordered breakup of JP Morgans N. Securities Co. INSERT INTO `cofwp_posts` VALUES (railroad); success of policy to judge trust on case by case basis
Hepburn Actgave ICC more authority to set railroad freight/storage rates but also gave court the power to overturn rate decisions INSERT INTO `cofwp_posts` VALUES (tradeoff)
The JungleUpton Sinclair; fictional novel that exposed corrupt meatpacking industry; led to regulatory measures
Meat Inspection ActINSERT INTO `cofwp_posts` VALUES (Roosevelt- 1906) reinforced gov. regulation of meat production as fueled by “the jungle”
Pure Food and Drug ActINSERT INTO `cofwp_posts` VALUES (Roosevelt- 1906) prohibited dangerous foods and also addressed abuses in medicine industry
Gifford Pinchotchief forester of US Forest Service who advocated scientific management of the nations woodlands to protect land/water from overuse by timber cutters, farmers, herders
William Howard Taftsympathetic to reform, prosecuted trusts, believed in strict restraint of the law; during presidency the progressive and conservative wings of Republican party drifted apart
16th amendmentlegalized federal income tax; will allow for Underwood Tariff
Bull Moose PartyRoosevelts supporters INSERT INTO `cofwp_posts` VALUES (progressives) created as third party in election against dem. Wilson and socialist Debs; campaign = most thorough evaluation of American system since 1896
Woodrow Wilsonprogressive president known more for direction of country during WWI; expanded governments regulatory powers over business and banking
New NationalismRoosevelt; an era of national unity in which government would coordinate and regulate economic activity
New FreedomWilson; concentrated economic power threatened individual liberty and monopolies had to be broken up so marketplace could become genuinely open
Clayton Anti-Trust Actcorrected deficiencies of Sherman anti-trust act by outlawing monopolistic practices and interlocking directorates
Federal Trade Commissioninvestigated companies and issued cease-and-desist orders against unfair trade practices; could be appealed in court, but still a step toward consumer protection
Federal Reserve Act of 1913created 12 district banks that would lend $ at discount rates INSERT INTO `cofwp_posts` VALUES (could increase/decrease amt. of $ in circulation); loosen/tighten credit with nations needs; first central banking system since 1836