APUSH chapters 23-31

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General Ulysses S. Grant
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Republican nominee who got elected by “waving the bloody shirt”. Failed to see corruption going on and when his own private secretary was found guilty he retracted his statement of let no guilty man walk free
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Jim Fisk and Jay Gould
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Stock manipulators and brothers-in-law of President Grant, they made money selling gold. Plan failed when the treasury sold gold
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Horatio Seymour
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Democratic candidate who didn’t accept a redemption-of-greenbacks-for-maximum-value platform, and thus doomed his party.
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Tweed Ring
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(AKA, “Tammany Hall) of NYC, headed by “Boss” Tweed, employed bribery, graft, and fake elections to cheat the city of as much as $200 million. Tweed was finally caught when The New York Times secured evidence of his misdeeds, and Tweed, prosecuted by future presidential candidate Samuel J. Tilden, was convicted and imprisoned.
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Thomas Nast
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Newspaper cartoonist who produced satirical cartoons, he invented “Uncle Sam” and came up with the elephant and the donkey for the political parties. He nearly brought down Boss Tweed.
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Credit Mobilier
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a railroad construction company that paid itself huge sums of money for small railroad construction, tarred Grant. A New York newspaper finally busted it, and two members of Congress were formally censured (the company had given some of its stock to the congressmen) and the Vice President himself was shown to have accepted 20 shares of stock.
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Whiskey Ring
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During the Grant administration, a group of officials were importing whiskey and using their offices to avoid paying the taxes on it, cheating the treasury out of millions of dollars.
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Horace Greeley
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nominated by Liberal Republican Party and by Democratic party, but still lost to Grant
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Panic of 1873
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caused by too many railroads and factories being formed than existing markets could bear and the over-loaning by banks to those projects. Essentially, the causes of the panic were the same old ones that’d caused recessions every 20 years that century: (1) over-speculation and (2) too-easy credit. It first started with the failure of the New York banking firm Jay Cooke & Company, which was headed by the rich Jay Cooke, a financier of the Civil War.
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Resumption Act of 1875
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pledged the government to further withdraw greenbacks and made all further redemption of paper money in gold at face value, starting in 1879.
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Bland-Allison Act
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instructed the Treasury to buy and coin between $2 million and $4 million worth of silver bullion each month. (hollow victory for cheap money advocates)
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The Gilded Age
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term coined by Mark Twain hinting that times looked good, yet if one scratched a bit below the surface, there were problems. Times were filled with corruption and presidential election squeakers, and even though Democrats and Republicans had similar ideas on economic issues, there were fundamental differences.
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Roscoe Conkling (Stalwarts) and James G. Blaine (Half-Breeds)
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In the 1870s and the 1880s, Republican infighting was led by these rivals
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Rutherford B. Hayes
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Republican candidate dubbed the “Great Unknown” because no one knew much about him
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Electoral Count Act
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As a belated result of the disputed election of 1876 involving Samuel J. Tilden and Rutherford B. Hayes, the Electoral Count Act of 1887 placed the responsibility of deciding electoral disputes mainly on the states themselves. Congress now counts the votes (a mere formality) on Jan. 6.
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Compromise of 1877
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For the North—Hayes would become president if he agreed to remove troops from the remaining two Southern states where Union troops remained (Louisiana and South Carolina), and also, a bill would subsidize the Texas and Pacific rail line. For the South—military rule and Reconstruction ended when the military pulled out of the South. The Compromise of 1877 abandoned the Blacks in the South by withdrawing troops, and their last attempt at protection of Black rights was the Civil Rights Act of 1875, which was mostly declared unconstitutional by the Supreme Court in the 1883 Civil Rights cases.
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Plessy v. Ferguson
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“separate but equal” facilities were constitutional. Thus “Jim Crow” segregation was legalized
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Denis Kearney
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He incited violent abuse of Chinese in California because of resentment of competition of cheap labor
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Chinese Exclusion Act
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After Hayes left office, this law was passed barring any Chinese from entering the United States—the first law limiting immigration.
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James A. Garfield
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Republican who won election over Arthur, but was shot
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Pendleton Act of 1883
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Under Arthur: so-called Magna Charta of civil-service reform (awarding of government jobs based on ability, not just because a buddy awarded the job), prohibited financial assessments on jobholders, including lowly scrubwomen, and established a merit system of making appointments to office on the basis of aptitude rather than “pull.”
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Mugwumps
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Republican reformers, unable to stomach James Blaine as the nominee, switched to the Democratic Party
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Grover Cleveland
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22nd and 24th president, Democrat, Honest and hardworking, fought corruption, vetoed hundreds of wasteful bills, achieved the Interstate Commerce Commission and civil service reform, violent suppression of strikes. battled for a lower tariff, upsetting Democrats and pleasing Republicans
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Dawes Act
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Under Cleveland:An act that removed Indian land from tribal possesion, redivided it, and distributed it among individual Indian families. Designed to break tribal mentalities and promote individualism.
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Interstate Commerce Act
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Under Cleveland:designed to regulate the railroads
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transcontinental rail line
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a rail-road that would span the continent and connect the Atlantic and Pacific coasts. Union Pacific Railroad to began westward from Omaha, Nebraska, to gold-rich California.
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Railroads
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The Northern Pacific Railroad stretched from Lake Superior to the Puget Sound and was finished in 1883. The Atchison, Topeka, and Santa Fe stretched through the Southwest deserts and was completed the following year, in 1884. The Southern Pacific (completed in 1884) went from New Orleans to San Francisco. The Great Northern ran from Duluth to Seattle and was the creation of James J. Hill, probably the greatest railroad builder of all.
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Jay Gould
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made millions embezzling stocks from the Erie, Kansas Pacific, the Union Pacific, and the Texas and Pacific railroad companies.
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stock watering
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railroad companies grossly over-inflated the worth of their stock and sold them at huge profits.
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Interstate Commerce Act
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passed in 1887, banned rebates and pools and required the railroads to publish their rates openly (so as not to cheat customers), and also forbade unfair discrimination against shippers and banned charging more for a short haul than for a long haul
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Thomas Edison
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American inventor best known for inventing the electric light bulb, acoustic recording on wax cylinders, and motion pictures.
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Alexander Graham Bell
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invented telephone
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Andrew Carnegie
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used a method called “vertical integration,” which meant that he bought out and controlled all aspects of the production line in an industry (in his case, he mined the iron, transported it, refined it, and turned it into steel, controlling all parts of the process).
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John D. Rockefeller
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master of “horizontal integration,” where he simply allied with or bought out competitors to monopolize a given market. He used this method to form Standard Oil and control the oil industry by forcing weaker competitors to go bankrupt.
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J. Pierpont Morgan
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He was a banker who financed the reorganization of railroads, insurance companies, and banks. He bought out Carnegie and in 1901 he started the United States Steel Corporation.
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Sherman Anti-Trust Act
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First federal action against monopolies, it was signed into law by Harrison and was extensively used by Theodore Roosevelt for trust-busting. However, it was initially misused against labor unions
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National Labor Union
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1866 – established by William Sylvis – wanted 8hr work days, banking reform, and an end to conviction labor – attempt to unite all laborers
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Knights of Labor
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one of the most important American labor organizations of the 19th century, demanded an end to child and convict labor, equal pay for women, a progressive income tax, and the cooperative employer-employee ownership of mines and factories
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American Federation of Labor.
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Federation of craft labor unions lead by Samuel Gompers that arose out of dissatisfaction with the Knights of Labor
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Mary Baker Eddy
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founder of Christian Science in 1866 (1821-1910)
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Booker T. Washington
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Prominent black American, born into slavery, who believed that racism would end once blacks acquired useful labor skills and proved their economic value to society, was head of the Tuskegee Institute in 1881. His book “Up from Slavery.”
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W.E.B. Du Bois
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first Black to get a Ph.D. from Harvard University, demanded complete equality for Blacks and action now. He also founded the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) in 1910
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Sand Creek
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was an incident in the Indian Wars of the United States that occurred on November 29, 1864, when Colorado Territory militia attacked and destroyed a village of Cheyenne and Arapaho encamped on the eastern plains.
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Colonel Custer
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found gold in the Black Hills of South Dakota (sacred Sioux land), and hordes of gold-seekers invaded the Sioux reservation in search of gold, causing Crazy Horse and the Sioux to go on the warpath, completely decimating Custer’s Seventh Calvary at Little Big Horn in the process.
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Why Indians Subdued
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(1) the railroad, which cut through the heart of the West, (2) the White man’s diseases, (3) the extermination of the buffalo, (4) wars, and (5) the loss of their land to White settlement.
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Battle of Wounded Knee
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The Wounded Knee Massacre, also known as The Battle at Wounded Knee Creek, was the last major armed conflict between the Lakota Sioux and the United States, subsequently described as a “massacre” by General Nelson A. Miles in a letter to the Commissioner of Indian Affairs.
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Dawes Severalty Act of 1887
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dissolved the legal entities of all tribes, but if the Indians behaved the way Whites wanted them to behave (become farmers on reservations), they could receive full U.S. citizenship in 25 years (full citizenship to all Indians was granted in 1924).
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Comstock Lode
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first discovered in 1858 by Henry Comstock, some of the most plentiful and valuable silver was found here, causing many Californians to migrate here, and settle Nevada.
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Long Drive
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Refers to the overland transport of cattle by the cowboy over the three month period. Cattle were sold to settlers and Native Americans.
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Joseph Glidden
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Invented barbed wire
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Homestead Act of 1862
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allowed folks to get as much as 160 acres of land in return for living on it for five years, improving it, and paying a nominal fee of about $30.00. Or, it allowed folks to get land after only six month’s residence for $1.25 an acre.
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The Grange
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It was a farmers’ movement involving the affiliation of local farmers into area “granges” to work for their political and economic advantages. The official name of the National Grange is the Patrons of Husbandry the Granger movement was successful in regulating the railroads and grain warehouses
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Farmers’ Alliance
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(1) nationalization of railroads, (2) the abolition of national banks, (3) a graduated income tax, and (4) a new federal sub-treasury for farmers.
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McKinley Tariff Bill of 1890
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Raised tariff to 50%, killed American farmers, cost Harrison election
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Populists
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demanded (1) free and unlimited coinage of silver at a ratio of sixteen to one, (2) a graduated income tax, and (3) government ownership of the telephone, telegraph, and railroads—all to combat injustice. They also wanted (4) direct elections of U.S. Senators, (5) a one-term limit on the presidency, and (6) the use of the initiative and referendum to allow citizens to propose and review legislation—all in the true spirit of Democracy.
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Sherman Silver Purchase Act
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Required the government to purchase an additional 4.5 million ounces of silver bullion each month for use as currency. Repealed
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Frederick Remington
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artist who Hearst sent to make up atrocities about Spanish
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Foraker Act of 1900
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gave Puerto Ricans a limited degree of popular government, and in 1917, Congress granted Puerto Ricans full American citizenship
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Platt Amendment
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Cuba’s Constitution that said: (1) the U.S. could intervene and restore order in case of anarchy, (2) that the U.S. could trade freely with Cuba, and (3) that the U.S. could get two bays for naval bases, notably Guantanamo Bay.
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Emilio Aguinaldo
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led Filipino troops
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Boxers’ Rebellion
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Patriotic Chinese militant group who killed foreigners and Chinese Christians
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Roosevelt Corollary
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stated that in future cases of debt problems, the U.S. would take over and handle any intervention in Latin America on behalf of Europe, thus keeping Europe away and the Monroe Doctrine intact.
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Progressives
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reformers who worked to stop unfair practices by businesses and improve the way grovernment works
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Ida M. Tarbell
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journalist who published a devastating but factual expose of the Standard Oil Company
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initiative
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voters could directly propose legislation
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referendum
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people could vote on laws that affected them
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recall
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remove bad officials from office
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18th Amendment
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Prohibited the manufacture, sale, and distribution of alcoholic beverages
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Square Deal
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The Progressivism spirit touched President Roosevelt, and his “Square Deal” embraced the three Cs: control of the corporations, consumer protection, and the conservation of the United States’ natural resources.
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Elkins Act
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fined railroads that gave rebates and the shippers that accepted them.
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Hepburn Act
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restricted the free passes of railroads
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Forest Reserve Act
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authorized the president to set aside land to be protected as national parks.
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Newlands Act of 1902
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initiated irrigation projects for the western states while the giant Roosevelt Dam, built on the Arizona River, was dedicated in 1911.
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Dollar Diplomacy
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President Taft’s policy of linking American business interests to diplomatic interests abroad
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triple wall of privilege
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Wilson tackled the tariff, banks, and trusts
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1913 Federal Reserve Act
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created the new Federal Reserve Board, which oversaw a nationwide system of twelve regional reserve districts, each with its own central bank, and had the power to issue paper money
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Federal Trade Commission Act
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empowered a president-appointed position to investigate the activities of trusts and stop unfair trade practices such as unlawful competition, false advertising, mislabeling, adulteration, & bribery.
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1914 Clayton Anti-Trust Act
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lengthened the Sherman Anti-Trust Act’s list of practices that were objectionable, exempted labor unions from being called trusts (as they had been called by the Supreme Court under the Sherman Act), and legalized strikes and peaceful picketing by labor union members.
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La Follette Seamen’s Act of 1915
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required good treatment of America’s sailors, but it sent merchant freight rates soaring as a result of the cost to maintain sailor health
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Workingmen’s Compensation Act of 1916
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granted assistance of federal civil-service employees during periods of instability but was invalidated by the Supreme Court.
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Adamson Act
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8 hr. work day
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Fourteen Points
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No more secret treaties. Freedom of the seas was to be maintained. A removal of economic barriers among nations. Reduction of armament burdens. Adjustment of colonial claims in the interests of natives and colonizers. “Self-determination,” or independence for oppressed minority groups who’d choose their government A League of Nations, an international organization that would keep the peace and settle world disputes.

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