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APUSH Chapter 37 The Eisenhower Era 1952-1960

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A key economic transformation of the 1950s was…
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the growth of “white collar” office jobs that increasingly replaced “blue collar” factory labor.
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When the 1950s began, a majority of American women were…
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raising children and not employed outside the home.
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The primary force shaping the new consumerism and mass popular culture of the 1950s was…
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television
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In the 1952 Republican presidential campaign, the task of attacking the Democratic party and Governor Adlai E Stevenson as “soft” on Communism fell to…
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vice presidential candidate Senator Richard Nixon.
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As president, Eisenhower enjoyed great popularity by presenting a leadership style of…
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reassurance, optimism, and sincerity
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The Korean War ended with…
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a stalemated armistice and continued division of North and South Korea.
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Senator Joseph McCarthy’s anticommunist crusade finally collapsed when…
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McCarthy attacked the US Army for alleged communist influence.
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The precipitation event that led to the rise of Dr Martin Luther King Jr. as the most prominent civil rights leader was…
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the Montgomery bus boycott
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The primary impetus for civil rights within the federal government came from…
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the Supreme Court
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Martin Luther King Jr’s own civil rights organization, the SCLC, rested on the institutional foundation of…
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black churches
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Eisenhower’s basic approach to domestic economic policy was…
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to trim back some New Deal programs but keep most in place.
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Despite his fiscal conservatism Eisenhower actually outdid the New Deal with his massive federal spending on…
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a transcontinental interstate highway system
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The United States first became involved in Vietnam by…
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providing economic aid to the French colonists fighting Ho Chi Minh
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Senator John F Kennedy’s main issue in the campaign of 1960 was that…
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the US had fallen behind the Soviet Union in prestige and power.
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One major breakthrough in American literature in the early post-World War II years was…
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satirical and comic novels by Jewish writers.
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Term for making ruthless and unfair charges against opponents such as those leveled by a red hunting Wisconsin senator in the 1950s
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McCarthyism
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Supreme Court ruling that overturned the old Plessy vs Ferguson principle that back public facilities could be “separate but equal”
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Brown vs Board of Education of Topeka, Kansas
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The doctrine upon which Eisenhower and Dulles based American nuclear policy in the 1950s
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Massive Retaliation
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An Asian alliance, set up by Secretary Dulles on the model of NATO, to help support the anticommunist regime in South Vietnam.
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SEATO
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The British and French owned waterway whose nationalization by Egyptian President Nasser triggered a major Middle East crisis.
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Suez Canal
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A soviet scientific achievement that set off a wave of American concern about Soviet superiority in science and education
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Sputnik
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Major international corporation that symbolized the early computer and “information age”
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International Business machines
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High flying American spy plane whose downing in 1960 destroyed a summit and heightened Cold War tensions
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U-2
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Latin American nation where a 1959 communist revolution ousted a US backed dictator.
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Cuba
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Betty Friedan’s 1963 book that launched a revolution against the suburban “cult of domesticity” that reigned in the 1950s
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The Feminist Mystique
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Eloquent Democratic presidential candidate who was twice swamped by a popular Republican war hero
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Adlai E Stevenson
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Anticommunist leader who set up a pro American government to block Ho Chi Minh’s expected takeover of all Vietnam
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Ngo Dinh Diem
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Latin American revolutionary who became economically and Militarily dependent on the Soviet Union
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Fidel Castro
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Eisenhower’s tough-talking secretary of state who wanted to “roll back” communism
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John Foster Dulles
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Red hunter turned world traveling diplomat who narrowly missed becoming president in 1960
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Richard Nixon
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Black minister whose 1955 Montgomery bus boycott made him the leader of the civil rights movement
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Martin Luther King Jr
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The soldier who kept the nation at peace for most of his two terms and ended up warning America about the “military industrial complex”
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Dwight D Eisenhower
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Popular religious evangelical who effectively used the new medium of television
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Billy Graham
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Youthful political who combined television appeal with traditional big city Democratic politics to squeak out a victory in 1960.
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John F Kennedy
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Blustery Soviet leader who frequently challenged Eisenhower with both threats and diplomacy
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Nikita Khrushchev
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Reckless and power hungry demagogue who intimidated even President Eisenhower before his bubble bursts
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Joseph R McCarthy
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A Vietnamese nationalist and communist whose defeat of the French led to calls for American military intervention in Vietnam
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Ho Chi Minh
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Writer whose 1963 book signaled the beginnings of more extensive feminist protest
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Betty Friedan
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Tough Teamster union boss whose corrupt actions helped lead to passage of the Landrum Griffin Act
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James R Hoffa
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Controversial jurist who led the Supreme Court into previously off limits social and racial issues
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Earl Warren
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Year? Major crises in Eastern Europe and the Middle East create severe challenges for Eisenhower’s foreign policy.
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1956
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Year? An American plane over the Soviet Union, disrupting a summit and retiling the Cold War.
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1960
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Year? Eisenhower refuses to use American troops to prevent a communist victory over a colonial power in Asia.
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1954
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Year? Eisenhower orders federal troops to enforce a Supreme Court ruling over strong resistance form state officials.
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1957
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Year? Eisenhower’s meeting with Soviet leader Khrushchev marks the first real sign of a thaw in the Cold War.
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1959
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Cause/Effect Joseph McCarthy’s attacks on the US Army
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exposed the senator’s irresponsbility and brought about his downfall.
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Cause/Effect Brown vs Board of Education
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set off “massive resistance” to integration in most parts of the Deep South.
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Cause/Effect Governor Orval Faulbus’s use of the National Guard to prevent integration
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forced President Eisenhower to send deferral troops to Little Rock.
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Cause/Effect The 1956 Hungarian revolt
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forced Secretary of State Dulles to abandon his plans to “roll back” communism.
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Cause/Effect The Communist Vietnamese victory over the French in 1954
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caused the United States to begin backing an anticommunist regime in South Vietnam.
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Cause/Effect Nasser’s nationalization of the Suez Canal
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led to the 1956 British-French-Israeli invasion of Egypt.
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Cause/Effect The fears of both eh United States and the Soviet Union that the other nation was gaining a lead in rocketry and weapons
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led to continuing nuclear tests and the extension of the arms race.
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Cause/Effect The downing of the U-2 spy plane
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undermined the Paris summit and weakened Eisenhower s goodwill diplomacy.
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Cause/Effect American intervention in Latin America and support for anti-communist dictators in that region
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created widespread resentment of the Unites States in parts o the Western Hemisphere.
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Cause/Effect Kennedy’s television glamour and traditional political skills
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enabled the Democrats to win a narrow electoral victory in 1960.